Medicine

Lesson 2

 

Lesson 2

 

Subject:  1. My future profession. Four types of questions.

              2. Revision lesson.

              3. First and second dentitions.

My future profession.

 

         The dentist today undergoes a period of training at a university which lasts 5 years. The dentist has a wide choice of opportunities within his profession: general practice, school dental service, hospital service, university teaching and research, industrial dental service and the armed forces.

         A dentist may also take additional higher qualifications and become a specialist in a particular branch of dentistry. He is the captain of a team which can practice in the most efficient way. The dentist carries out all the treatment which he alone can perform, whilst the other members of the team – auxiliary, hygienist, surgery assistants and technician – perform all the work which a dentist can delegate.

         Dental auxiliary is permitted to carry out the following simple treatment on children, as prescribed in writing by a dentist and under his supervision. Four classes of dental auxiliary are recognized: therapists, hygienists, technicians and surgery assistants.

         Therapists are permitted to carry out routine conservation treatment, the extraction of deciduous teeth and prophylactic treatment.

         Dental hygienists are permitted to carry out the removal of plaque and calculus, provide preventive instruction and advice.

         The dental technician is a highly skilled craftsman who constructs dentures, crowns, gold inlays. He works to the dentist’s prescription in a dental laboratory.

 

 

 

 

FIRST AND SECOND DENTITIONS

 

     The Deciduous Teeth

     The deciduous teeth are the first set and are also known as milk or temporary teeth. There are twenty of them; ten in each jaw with five on each side. The five teeth on each side of both jaws are named as follows from the front backwards:

 

     Eruption

     All teeth start developing in­side the jaws and their arrival in the mouth is known as eruption. Deciduous teeth start develop­ing before birth and erupt after birth. Eruption starts at six months and is completed at two years. Individual variation is common but the average ages are as follows:

1. Central incisor, 6 months.

2. Lateral incisor, 8 months.

3. Canine, 18 months.

4.1st molar, 12 months

5.2nd molar, 24 months.

     Lower teeth usually erupt before their corresponding upper.

 

     The Permanent Teeth

     Permanent teeth are the second and final set. There are thirty-two of them; sixteen in each jaw, eight on each side. Like deciduous teeth, the eight on each side of both jaws have the same names:

 

     Eruption

     Permanent teeth start developing at birth.

     Eruption commences at six years of age and is completed at eighteen to twenty-five years.

     Eruption times are subject to considerable individual variation but the average ages are:

1. Central incisor, 7 years.

2. Lateral incisor, 8 years.

3. Canine, 9 years (lower); 11 years (upper).

4.  1st premolar, 10 years (lower); 9 years (upper).

5.  2nd premolar, 11 years (lower); 10 years (upper).

6.1st molar, 6 years.

7.2nd molar, 12 years.

8.3rd molar, 18-25 years.

     After the deciduous teeth loosen, they are shed and are soon re­placed by eruption of their permanent successors. Deciduous inci­sors and canines are replaced by permanent teeth of the same name. Deciduous molars, however, are replaced by premolars. Thus the per­manent molars erupt without having any deciduous predecessors. De­ciduous teeth become loose by resorption of their roots which de­prives them of their attachment to the jaws. The unerupted perma­nent successors He adjacent to the absorbing deciduous roots and are thus able to erupt into their places when the deciduous teeth are finally shed.

 

LITERATURE:

a) Юдіна Є.Є., Потяженко Л.В. Підручник англійської мови. – К., Вища школа, 1994.

b) Гурська А.І. Англійська мова для студентів-медиків. Львів: Світ, 2003.

c) Демченко О. Й., Костяк Н.В. Англійська мова для студентів-медиків. Тернопіль: Укрмедкнига, 2001.

d) Мухіна В. В. Англійська мова для студентів-стоматологів.-М., 2003.

 

 

 

 

 

TEST SAMPLE:

 

Тема: Simple tenses. Four types of questions.

B - I

1. Виберіть правильну форму дієслова to teach у ІІІ особі однини

A. taught  

B teach

C. teachs

D. teaches 

E. teached 

                                   

2. Заповніть пропуск відповідною формою дієслова to be

 …you a student or a teacher?

A. am   

B. is

C. are  

D. were

E do

 

3. Заповніть пропуск відповідною формoю дієслова to have

Yesterday … a lecture in Anatomy

A. has had                   

B. will have

C. have  

D. has

E. had

 

4. Виберіть форму Past Indefinite дієслова to think

A. thinks                     

B. thought

C. thinkd              

D. thinked

E. thinking

 

5. Виберіть відповідну форму дієслова:

The physician … him a proper  treatment tomorrow.

A. administer               

B. administers

C. will administer  

D. administered

E. would administer