HYGIENE AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LABOUR.
CLASSIFICATION OF FACTORS OF LABOUR PROCESS AND PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT AFTER WEIGHT, TENSION AND HARMFULNESS. FEATURES OF HYGIENE OF LABOUR IN SEPARATE INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION. SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION OF LABOUR. ATTESTATION OF WORKPLACES IS ON THE TERMS OF LABOUR. A SANITARY LEGISLATION IS IN INDUSTRY OF LABOUR PROTECTION.
Occupation Hygiene is a branch of hygiene, which studies influence of industrial environment on workers' activity and develops arrangements, directed on improving working conditions and the increase of men capacity.
The subject of Occupation Hygiene is:
1. To study working processes and physiological disorders in an organism, caused by these processes;
2. To study man's workability and the develop physiological bases of rational working mode and rest;
3. To study the factors (meteorological, chemical, physical) of production environment with the aim of development a hygienic rate;
4. To study the peculiarities of production processes, equipment and materials, raw materials and other products of production; with the purpose of removal of the influence on the working organism.
5. To study worker's state of health (professional and non-specific diseases);
6. To study the state and the effectiveness of sanitary-technical (ventilation, illumination) and sanitary-domestic devices and equipment, methods of individual defence etc.
Nowadays, The Hygiene of Work gives the knowledge about inauspicious factors of production environment, and contributes to the creation of healthy working conditions on industrial enterprises and in agriculture, to the removal of unfavourable production influence and traumatism, to the prevention of professional diseases, to the strengthening of worker's health and to the increase of their capacity.
On the peculiarities of studied bases of production environment and his influence on the organism of a work labour hygiene develops:
· Hygienic demands to rational equipment use,
· Hygienic norms and regulations in working conditions,
· Building and upkeeps of industrial enterprises;
·Arrangements of personal hygiene;
· Suggestions for the rational working conditions organization and rest.
Labour hygiene uses many various research methods:
- Physical and chemical methods are used for the research of working conditions on production and the effectiveness estimation of sanitary arrangements;
- Physiological methods are used for the research of changes in organism, which arise under conditions influence and working disposition;
- Hospital-statistic and sanitary-statistic methods are used for the study of health state and morbidity of workers.
Experimental researches are also used with the use of physical, chemical, biochemical, psychological, toxic and other methods.
Big deposit into labour hygiene development was brought in by the famous
Russian physiologists: M. Schenov, P.
Pavlov, М. Vvedenc'kuj, О. О. Yxomc'kuj and others. They
studied the question of rational working mode and rest, active rest and
training of organism, exhausting problem, and also influence of separate
professional factors on organism. A considerable payment into hygiene
development and physiology of work of Ukrainian physiologies was made by
the organizer and first director of labour hygiene Institute and professional
PHYSIOLOGICAL DISPLACEMENTS ARISING IN ORGANISM
UNDER WORK TIME
In working process man does different work, which produces all types of energy conversion. This is work of top and lower finiteness, other organs or all organisms. Thus, work is a physiological category. Muscle work executed by human causes the changes of functional organism state. Distinguish a dynamic muscle work, when the removing of weight in direction is made, opposed to force action weight (weight lifting is a positive dynamic work) and on horizontal, and also in direction, which coincides with force action weight (sinking of weight is a negative dynamic work), and static, for which removing of weight is not made, and muscle effort is directed on her supporting.
The Biochemical processes, associated with muscle work, can take place in anaerobic conditions. In anaerobic phase muscle abbreviation is conditioned by interaction of muscles contraction protein (аktomiozyn) with adenosine-tri-phosphoric acid (АТP). Interacting with akromyozyn, АТP decomposes into adenosine-di-phosphorus acid (АDP) and phosphoric acid. As a result of this an energy of phosphorus combinations ATP, and thus a muscle contraction During the muscle relaxation period АDP is converted into АТP at the expense of the energy, which is secreted during the breaking up time of creatinin-phoshporus and mostly of glycogen, which transforms into lactic acid with the participation of phosphoric acid.
In humans body each АТP molecule splits and then is made again and so 2400 times per day, so that medium lifetime of one molecule is less than 1 min. A man with a weight of 70 kg produces from carbohydrates with a calorie content of 3000 calories 75kg of АТP per day. The Living organisms produce a lot more energy on a unit the masses, than the Sun.
Thus, energy, obtained in act of carbohydrates decomposition is used for the mechanical muscles work not directly, but through the phosphoric combinations that are rich by energy, for account of which a loss of Creatin-phosphate and АТP is restored.
In aerobic phase a part of lactic acid, which is generated in act of muscle contraction, oxidizes to dioxide, carbon and waters and is taken out of organism. The rest of lactic acid for oxidation energy resynthesizes into glycogen and can again take part in cycle of muscle contraction. After 2-4 min from the beginning of work man the activity of respiratory and cardiac-vascular systems increases: increases a minute heart volume, accelerates a pulse, considerably rises maximum arterial pressure, improves circulation of blood in muscle, which works, increases respiratory rate. The processes explain this, the impulses from muscles are coming to the central nervous system (CNS), which realize motion, and lactic acid and other products of interchange of matters come into blood. Because of this an organism gets a necessary amount of oxygen for oxidation of lactic acid, which is formed, and brings further disintegration of products that accumulation will be prevented.
All types of muscular work, which man is doing in an act of working activity, one can be allotted on light, middle heaviness and hard work.
To light physical works (category I) belong the types of work with energy loss to 172 Joule/Sec (150 cal/h);
to physical works of middle heaviness (ІІ a and ІІ b categories) belong works, which stipulate for an energy expense 172 232 Joule/Sec (150 200 cal/h) and 232 293 Joule/Sec (200 250 cal/h); hard works (III category) are characterized by the energy loss over 293 Joule/Sec .
According to standard, to light physical works belong these, which are fulfilled when seated, upright or associated with permanent walking, but do not need the systematic physical effort or lifting up and transference of weight.
TIREDNESS AND PROPHYLAXY ARRANGEMENTS.
Tiredness is a reduction of working ability, which is caused by the fulfilment of certain work. Objectively, the process of tiredness expresses in reduction of working capacity, and subjectively into feeling tired. For the explanation of the essence of the process of tiredness were proposed a lot of hypotheses. Hypothesis, which was offered, first explained the essence of tiredness by underestimation of power supplies (carbohydrates and lipids). This theory doesn't have any bases. By Practical experiment was led that in any animal which felt tiredness (as a result of intensive work) and enough supply of glycogen is left.
Later appeared the theories organism poisoning by the disintegration products of albumin and carbohydrates, or by the special toxins - cetotoxins. This theory is bottomed on that a blood of tired animal, which is given to animal who isn’t tired causes a state, which identical to tiredness. But this theory was also incorrect. The intoxication phenomena arose in animals, which introduced also an extract of tired muscle.
At last was created theory organism poisoning by disintegration products, specifically by lactic acid . Actually, accumulation in organism of lactic acid can forward tiredness; however, lactic acid is not a cause of tiredness.
All of above stated tiredness theories would be impossibly to explain from physiological point of view, because they were based on a research of isolated muscle tissue, not accounting a connection with organism functions as whole and regulative role of central nervous system(CNS).
.Sichenov thought, that the feeling of tiredness should not be connected with muscles state, which work. Because the source of a feeling of tiredness is a state of nervous system.
On the studying bases of P.Pavlov, .Yokhtomsky was elucidated the main cause of tiredness, that consisted in change of functional state of central nervous system(CNS), specifically cerebrum cortex. As a working result in cortex of cerebrum arises a destructive process, which prevents excessive exhaustion cortex cells. This theory explains the question about the mechanism of tiredness as a result of brainwork and static work, which is attended with insignificant energy expenditures.
However changes, which arise, when man gets tired, impossibly to consider insulated as changes in cortex of cerebrum and not to take into account displacements in whole organism. Tiredness is explained by the change of functional state of whole organism, in which leading role belongs to changes in central nervous system (CNS). Distinguish tiredness, which quickly develops (by reason of unusual or very hard physical work), and tiredness, which develops slowly (secondary) and is attended with some changes in organism, conditioned though and usual, but by the long work.
A Tiredness, that develops quickly, can appear by reason of big physical efforts or execution of work task, which is not suitable for functional organism possibilities. Such tiredness characterizes by violation of functions coordination by central nervous system and beginnings of hearths of special disorders. The difference of tiredness, that quickly develops, is a fast organism functions renewing after suppression of work.
A Tiredness, which develops slowly, characterizes by gradual capacity reduction by reason of usual, but extremely long or monotonous work. Under this braking develops slowly, it unsteady, superficial and gradually acquires disposition stage. are observed some weakening of reception functions, of visual and auditory analysers, motions coordination violations etc.
Secondary tiredness can gradually congest and cause an overstrain, a pathological state.
The main overstraining process signs are:
- Sleeplessness (insomnia) ,
- Appetite loss,
- Raised irritation,
- Wane of memory,
- Lowering of organism immunity.
An overstrain is a typical working conditions peculiarity. The main arrangement against overstraining is a rational working period combinations and rest (breaks). A break must be long enough for full renewing of physiological functions. Positive influences have physical exercises during the break time, automatism and production mechanization. The problems of working capacity and the prevention of tiredness can be solved by different ways, specifically with the use of wide mechanization of hard intensive works, automatism of production processes, rationalization of technological equipment etc. The most effective tiredness prophylaxis arrangements are organization of rational laboured process, working mode and rest, creation of conditions for fast capturing of laboured habits.
Organization of rational laboured process is first of all in rationalization of work motions. They have to be smooth, without harsh changes of temp and direction that contributes to less strained cortex work and brainwork. Need to put away superfluous motions. A big role in rationalization of working process takes a rhythm of laboured activity, which contributes to the formation of temporal intercourses, to the forming of dynamic stereotype.
Training also is an important condition of fast forming of working habits and prevention of tiredness. As a result of training fall down the power expenses according to the muscular work. And in muscules increases level of glycogen and creatinine phosphate. At the time of training steady stereotype is generated contributing to removal of superfluous motions. Motions become exact, light, automatic.
Organization of rational working mode and rest provides certain working alternation sequence and break-times that is very important in the increase of capacity and prevention of tiredness. The rational labour organization and rest include rest enters, alternation of activity of working and unlimbering muscles, that contributes to capacity rise. In production conditions this rest is included into laboured process in appearance of specially developed complex of physical exercises (gymnastics before the beginning of work and sports pauses during work time).
WOMEN’S WORK HYGIENE
Active working women activity put a problem in front of hygienists about rational organization of their work according to the anatomic-physiological peculiarities of women's organism, that workwoman could without organism losses attend her professional activity.
All professional injuries for the influence disposition on women's organism one can be divided on three groups:
A) That, that simply influence an organism, irrespective of sex;
B) Inauspicious for women's organism, but not dangerous for
C) Which threaten to generative women folks function.
Very dangerous from point of view of inauspicious results for women's health of production activity, when lowering the harmful production factors negatively influence on not stable organism abiding in period of pubescence.
Hard physical work does not pass without trace for delivery function. Among women, who do the hard physical work, pretty big percentage of wilful abortions, increasing estimated delivery time, In a connection with mechanization of production processes fall down specific gravity of hard physical work, that played a part in health improvement.
By Legislation provided a row of arrangements for guard and women working hygiene. Thus, inhibits from the use of women's labour on row of hard physical work & risky work (with liquid metal, on works, stokers and etc.). Inhibited from a physical labour on underground works, in mining building industry, on building and underground buildings.
A Legislation admits loading and unloading of loads by women by weight no more 20 kg (two together on burdens - 50 kg, taking into account burdens weight), on three-wheeled barrow - 100 kg, in trolleys on rails - 100 kg.
A Row of arrangements foreseen in point of pregnant women. A Decretive leave of absence is 172 calendar days. For a while of decretive leave of absence is kept a work place. The Pregnant women transfer on easier work with keeping of salary (if it differs).
HYGIENE AND WORKING PROTECTION OF TEENAGERS
By official legislation a teenagers are considerate a young people in age from 15 to 18 years. A basic peculiarity of this age is a high level of basic functions, fast growth and physical development of organism, alteration of endocrine vegetative system, nervously psychic sphere and interchange of matters.
That's why in production of certain arrangements and regulations from juvenile working hygiene and their medical service it is important to take in account anatomic-physiological peculiarities.
Teenagers’ lot more than adult suffer from influences of professional intoxications. That's why it's very important to pay attention on the control upon teenagers if during their professionally-production activity, they do not suffer from the influence of toxic matters. A breathing process and circulation of the blood in teenagers has its peculiarities. Specifically, greater minute air volume on 1cm 2 lungs surface , that can condition fast adsorption of toxic matters.
In working protection system of teenagers big sense has a traumatism
Prophylaxis. Traumatism among teenagers is much higher. And the reasons for non-observance of accident prevention regulations, ignoring the methods of individual defence, violation of order and carelessness in work tracks. Created a slender labour teenager protection system. Consequently, it's prohibited to take on work an under-age, to use the work of teenagers on difficult and productions insalubrious, to admit them to night works. Provided a row of privileges. Among them is shortening of duration of workday. For teenagers by age of 16-18 years is set a 6-hours workday and summer vacations by duration of 1 calendar month.
Teenagers to 18-annual age, who work on enterprises and founding, are forbidden to entice to prolonged work, work during night-shift, and also to participation in works that need the transference or shift of loads.
For young boys of 16-18 years luggage weight removed by hand not ought to exceed 16 by kg, and for girls - 10 kg. During the transportation by one wheel barrows total load weight is not ought to exceed 50 by kg, and two wheels - 57 kg. For girls the transportation of loads is prohibited.
PROFESSIONAL INJURIES AND PROFESSIONAL DISEASES
Professional injuries are the factors of production environment and laboured process, which can have harmful influence on organism of a worker. Distinguish such production injuries:
- A Group of physical factors includes:
- Machines and mechanisms which run,
- increased pollination and gas pollution,
- raised or very low temperature of air of work zone,
- increase of noise levels in work area,
- Vibration, infrasound oscillations, to ultrasound,
- Electromagnetic radiation.
This factors group supplement raised or reduced humidity, movables, air ionization, atmospheric pressure, absence or lack of natural or lamplight of work zone, pulsation of light stream, and level of ultra-violet or infra-red radiation, reduced contraction, and zero-gravity.
A Group of chemical production factors subdivides on two parts:
2) by influence disposition on man:
- sensebilization ,
2) by the way of worming into man organism through:
1. breathing organs,
- digestive channel,
- skin and mucous envelope.
Biological production factors are:
1. pathogenic micro organisms and products of their vital functions,
2. poisonous plants
3. sick animals.
Psycho-physiological factors (dangerous and harmful) are the physical and nervously-psychologically overloads. First subdivide on static and dynamic, to second belong mental overstrain, monotony of laboured processes, emotional overloads, overstrain of analyzer.
By the factors of working process professional injuries can be divided into three the groups
1. Injuries associated with incorrect work (organization surplus effort of nervous system; long enforced body regulation; surplus effort of impellent vehicle and separate sense-organs; irrational labour mode ).
4. Injuries associated with production process and conditions of nearby environment, which girds worker under time of his working activity (inauspicious microclimate conditions, intensive radial heat, raised or reduced air pressure, radio-active radiation, surplus noise, increased contents of dust in the air).
5. Injuries associated with working circumstances.
They are not specific and can be seen on any production (insufficient ventilation, illumination, area, workplace cubage).By reason of influence on organism of aforesaid factors is possible beginnings of diseases, which name professional.
The Professional diseases can be:
The Specific diseases arise by reason of influence on worker organism of inauspicious factors of production environment. To them pneumoconiosis, professional dyskinesia (general coordination discords name of impellent acts), decompression and vibration illness, production intoxications, which cannot be met during the way of life. Consequently, Working in industrial poisons (by lead, mercury, arsenic) can entail beginnings of specific professional poisoning. non-specific diseases are the diseases which are conditioned not only by the other inauspicious professional factors, and, for example, bronchial asthma in furriers and pharmaceutics; chronic bronchitis in persons, working activity of which takes place for presence of production dust; radicalize in persons, which physical. work.
To diseases, which are associated with long work and walking, specially in communication with transference of weight, belongs a flat-footedness. It frequently appears into loaders, fitters. By reason of long standing, and also
adopting and transference of weight in enforced lining body regulation can develop different spine distortions, overwhelmingly ceafosis , and also deformation of pelvis in women. Long stay in regulation upright gives rise to changes in veins of lower limbs, by most typical manifestation of which varicose veins expansion is (loaders, waiters, hairdressers, ). Long body regulation when seated can contribute to violation digestion (colitis, chronic constipation)organs functions, development to piles, and into women to violation of menstrual cycle.
PROFESSIONAL ILLNESSES KNITTED WITH ENFORCED BODY REGULATION AND EFFORT of SEPARATE ORGANS
Correcting body regulation under work execution time, which does not provide even loading distribution and creates the inauspicious conditions for breathing and circulation of the blood.
To such diseases group belong a diseases conditioned by long upright work, when seated and by effort in result of labour of certain muscles groups. From professional diseases caused by causes, which are stated above, one can develop flat-footedness, distortion of spine, varicose veins expansion and others.
In a connection with mechanization of production processes, the need in enforced regulation and overstrain of organs and systems under work execution time arises less. So, and diseases, associated with that, arise rarely.
Attached to long stand-up body regulation, under walking time and loading heavy weight can develop flattened-foot and can be seen in workers of such professions: fitters, locksmiths, turners, loaders, punch press operators and others.
Work, that is fulfilled when seated, also gives some defections. First for all, spine distortion is a result of uneven loading on different groups of muscles. Deserve attention indigestions, piles, and in women - violations of menstrual cycle, that arise by reason of rise of inner skull pressure and blood stagnation in veins of abdominal cavity.
Enormous senses have the professional (coordination) neuroses that are seen in work, where one motion is permanently repeated. This disease is observed in workers, who work on machine tools with foot pretext, seamstresses, dairymaids, typists, pianists and others. A typical neuroses sign is a selective motion coordination discords. “A Writing spasm" is also a coordinating neurosis arising as a result of overstrain from long writing and is characterized by pains and spontaneous bends of fingers during writing time.
Diseases prophylactics problem, is associated with enforced body regulation attached to execution of work, by overstrain of organs and systems which are untied by mechanization of work processes, replacement of hand work by rational mechanized construction, to machine-tool, work table, organization of work place, by temporal switching on another work.
Under production traumatism understands the damages, which happened to a worker while performing of work on territory of production enterprise or finding pathology of organ function or organism as whole.
Types of worker’s trauma:
╥ Mechanical - from mobile parts of engines, hand instrument, falling objects and others;
╥ Thermal - from straight contact with steam, hot liquid, flame, melted metal;
╥ Chemical - from concentrated chemical matters (acids, meadows);
╥ Electric - from short circuit.
One classification of causes of production traumatism does not exist. Divided in three groups of causes of production traumatism: technical, organizational, sanitary-hygienic.
To technical causes belong:
╥ Engines constructions imperfection and equipment,
╥ Imperfection of very technological process,
╥ Machine-tools disrepair, engines, hand instrument,
╥ An absence or imperfection of protective engineering, equipment.
To organizational causes belong:
╥ Incorrect organization of working process,
╥ Application of dangerous labour methods,
╥ Non-observance of accident prevention regulations,
╥ a lack of individual defence methods.
Among sanitary-hygienic causes need to be marked:
╥ Violation of sanitary-hygienic mode on production,
╥ Bad illumination,
╥ High temperature and air humidity or superfluously low temperature,
╥ Production dust,
╥ High concentration of toxic matters in air,
╥ Workplace pollution,
╥ Considerable noise and others.
Production traumatism can be divided conditionally on two groups: industrial and agricultural, because for beginnings conditions, disposition and localization, and basic, assignment of medical care and arrangements preventing to traumatism.
An industrial traumatism are traumas having different characters but are developed on the place of working.
Basic arrangements for the preventing of traumatism are:
1. Control over equipment, and running instruments;
2. Improvement of natural and electrical illumination;
3. Systematic supervision for execution of accident prevention regulations;
4. Equipment of all of the workers by methods of individual defence and control of their use during the work time;
1. Improving arrangements against tiredness, taking out of external production environment,
2. Working mode rationalization and rest.
Mechanization of agricultural production, growth of village toilers culture, arrangements of working protection brought down traumatism in agricultural production.
The workers are most traumatized on field works.
The basic preservative arrangement against traumatism on tractors is the replacement of hand launching mechanical. Timely repair, adjustment and removal of disrepairs can also be a traumatism prophylactic. To prevent the traumatism in stock-raising, a worker must learn the ethos, animal's habits and how cautiously behave with them.