Personal hygiene

Hand washing is the act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the use of soap or other detergents, for the purpose of removing soil or microorganisms.

The main purpose of washing hands is to cleanse the hands of pathogens (including bacteria or viruses) and chemicals which can cause personal harm or disease. This is especially important for people who handle food or work in the medical field. While hot water may more effectively clean your hands, this is primarily due to its increased capability as a solvent, and not due to hot water actually killing germs. Hot water is more effective at removing dirt, oils and/or chemicals, but contrary to popular belief, it does not kill micro organisms. A temperature that is comfortable for hand washing (about 45 °C) is not nearly hot enough to kill any micro organism. It would take more than double that temperature to effectively kill germs (100 °C, which is boiling).

Personal hand washing

To maintain good hygiene, hands should always be washed after using the toilet, changing a diaper or tending to someone who is sick; before eating; before handling or cooking food and after handling raw meat, fish or poultry. Conventionally, the use of soap and warm running water and the washing of all surfaces thoroughly, including under fingernails is seen as necessary. One should rub wet, soapy hands together outside the stream of running water for at least 20 seconds, before rinsing thoroughly and then drying with a clean or disposable towel. After drying a dry paper towel should be used to turn off water and open exit door. Moisturizing lotion is often recommended to keep the hands from drying out, should one's hands require washing more than a few times per day.

Antibacterial soaps have been heavily promoted to a health-conscious public. To date, there is no evidence that using recommended antiseptics or disinfectants selects for antibiotic-resistant organisms in nature. However, antibacterial soaps contain common antibiotics such as Triclosan, which has an extensive list of resistant strains of organisms. So, even if antibacterial soaps do not select for antibiotic resistant strains, they might not be as effective as they are marketed to be. These soaps are quite different from the non-water-based hand hygiene agents referred to below, which also do not promote antibiotic resistance.

Medical hand washing

The purpose of hand washing in the health care setting is to remove or destroy (disinfect) pathogenic microorganisms ("germs" in common parlance) to avoid transmitting them to a patient. The application of water alone is ineffective for cleaning skin because water is unable to remove fats, oils, and proteins, which are components of organic soil. Therefore, removal of microorganisms from skin requires the addition of soaps or detergents to water. Plain soap does not kill pathogens. However, the addition of antiseptic chemicals to soap ("medicated" or "antimicrobial" soaps) does confer killing action to a hand washing agent.Such killing action may be desired prior to performing surgery or in settings in which antibiotic-resistant organisms are highly prevalent.

The proper washing of hands in a medical setting generally consists of the use of generous amounts of soap and water to lather and rub each part of ones hands systematically for 15 to 20 seconds. Hands should be rubbed together with digits interlocking. If there is debris under fingernails, a bristle brush is often used to remove it. Finally, it is necessary to rinse well and wipe dry with a paper towel. After drying, a dry paper towel should be used to turn off water and open exit door.

To 'scrub' one's hands for a surgical operation, one requires a tap that can be turned on and off without touching with the hands, some chlorhexidine or iodine wash, sterile towels for drying the hands after washing, a sterile brush for scrubbing and another sterile instrument for cleaning under the fingernails. All jewellery should be removed. This procedure requires washing the hands and forearms up to the elbows, and one must in this situation ensure that all parts of the hands and forearms are well scrubbed several times. When rinsing, it is ensured at all times that one does not allow water to drip back from the elbow to your hands. When done hands are dried with the sterile cloth and the surgical gown is donned.

In the late 1990s and early part of the 21st century, non-water-based hand hygiene agents (also known as alcohol-based hand rubs, antiseptic hand rubs, or hand sanitizers) began to gain popularity. Most are based on isopropyl alcohol or ethanol formulated together with a humectant such as glycerin into a gel, liquid, or foam for ease of use and to decrease the drying effect of the alcohol. The increasing use of these agents is based on their ease of use, rapid killing activity against microorganisms, and lower tendency to induce irritant contact dermatitis as compared to soap and water hand washing. Despite their effectiveness, the non-water agents do not clean hands of organic material, they simply disinfect them. However, disinfection does prevent transmission of infectious microorganisms.

Visible soiling of any sort on the hands must be washed with soap and water because alcohol-based hand rubs are ineffective in the presence of organic material. In addition, alcohols are ineffective against non-lipid-enveloped viruses (e.g., Noroviruses) and the spores of bacteria (e.g., Clostridium difficile) and protozoa (e.g., Giardia lamblia). When such microorganisms are likely to be encountered, soap and water hand washing is preferable.

The New England Journal of Medicine reports that hand washing remains at unacceptable levels in most medical environments, with large numbers of doctors and nurses routinely forgetting to wash their hands before touching patients.[6] One study has shown that proper hand washing and other simple procedures can decrease the rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections by 66 percent.

1.     Hand washing from Mayo Clinic

2.     ^ Hand washing from Tufts University

3.     ^ Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America. (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol) 2006 Oct; 27(10): 1107-19

4.     ^ Clean hands from the CDC

5.     ^ WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care


Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. It is generally practiced as part of regular hygiene.

Some spa facilities provide bathing in various other liquids such as chocolate or mud, and there have been examples of bathing in champagne. Additionally, exposing the body to open air is sometimes considered bathing, for example, in sunbathing.

Bathing serves several purposes:

  • Hygiene, and the physical appearance of cleanliness

  • Decontamination from chemical, biological, nuclear or other exposure-type hazards.

  • Recreation

  • Therapy (e.g. hydrotherapy), healing, rehabilitation from injury or addiction, relaxation (e.g. Blessed Rainy Day)

  • Religious, or, less frequently, other ceremonial rites (e.g. Baptism, Mikvah)

  • Celebration and socialization, e.g. running through fountains after winning the World Series, or jumping through a hole cut in the ice over a lake on New Year's Eve.

  • Ensuring people are free of certain items such as weapons or other contraband: In Chicago, Russian baths were a safe meeting place for rival gang leaders. Weapons are difficult to conceal on a nearly naked body. If the meeting resulted in reconciliation, the gangs would meet upstairs for bagels, cream cheese and borscht. [1] Many homeless shelters, and almost all prisons have an intake facility or intake process that includes a supervised shower with change of clothes to ensure that no contraband or contamination enters the facility.

Bathing is usually done in a bath (i.e. a place designed for bathing), but may also be done in places not specifically intended for bathing, such as rooftops (sunbathing and windbathing), a lake, river, or sprinkler connected to a garden hose.

One town known for its baths is Bath (known during ancient Roman times as Aquae Sulis), a Roman city in England famous for healing hydrothermal springs, and most recently for the Bath Spa Project consisting of a rooftop pool overlooking the city of Bath, as well as four circular clear glass steam baths. The word bath is believed to be derived from the name of the

Healthy life-style and personal hygiene

According to the official definition of the WHO (Statute, 1946) “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social welfare, not only absence of diseases or physical handicaps”.

From hygienic point of view “Health is the state of total biological, physical, psycho-physiological, social welfare when functions of all organs and systems of the human organism are balanced with environment, any diseases, pathological states and physical handicaps are absent”. It is a state of the organism when it realizes fully its biological and social functions – domestic, labour, social (interaction with other people and whole society).

According to the definition of specialists in other medical sciences “Health is the interval, within quantitative fluctuations of which, psychological and physiological processes are able to maintain the living system at the level of functional optimum, with self-regulation mechanisms functioning without physiological stress and failure”.

From the point of view of new subject, studied at school nowadays, “Health is the process (methods and means) of preservation, development of biological, physiological functions, optimal working capacity and social activity of the person if this person’s life is maximally active”.

Healthy lifestyle and usage of methods and means of personal hygiene are the basis to maintain and strengthen the health of individual and population in the whole.

Healthy lifestyle of the person is a big complex of methods and means of life, biologically and socially directed and expedient, which correspond to the human requirements and abilities. The person has to follow them to provide formation, preservation and strengthening of the health, reproductive ability and active longevity.

Healthy life-style of the population is a lifestyle, which provides integration of complete biological and social adaptation of each individual with maximum possible self-expression of people, nation, class, social group in specific conditions of life, and causes and provides further social development.

Methods and means of healthy lifestyle maintenance include subjective and objective conditions and factors, which depend on health of individual and society as a whole.

Subjective methods and means include:

o       adherence to personal hygiene rules – correct conditions of labour and rest, sleep and activity, eating patterns;

o       regular maintenance of clean body;

o       regular physical training, usage of methods and means for the organism tempering;

o       absence of harmful habits – drugs, toxical substances, alcohol, smoke abuse;

o       standard of personal culture.

Objective methods and means include:

o       endowment of a person resulted from level of education, profession, presence and type of work, level of salary; presence of family and number of family members, living conditions;

o       cold and hot water-supply in the residential premises; for some professions – in industry, public eating establishments – bath-houses, saunas, pools;

o       psychological and hygienic microclimate during interaction with society, work collective, family etc.;

o       full-value, sufficient, balanced, varied nutrition;

o       correspondence to hygienic requirements of domestic and occupational clothes, footwear, personal protective equipment in industry;

o       correspondence to hygienic standards of work hardness, intensity, complexity, factors of occupational environment.

Physical training is of great importance for preserving and strengthening health of each person and for hypokynesia prevention. Physical training influences cortex of brain and subcortical centers, forms balanced nervous and psychological state, stimulates development of the organism muscles, cardio-vascular system.

Physical training includes the following:

-               morning exercises for restoration of physical activity and working capacity after sleep;

-               physical pauses during workday for increasing the working capacity;

-               physical training in person’s free time.

Tempering means increasing of the organism resistance to influence of fluctuations of water and air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation and other physical factors of environment.

Main principles of tempering:

-         course – gradual increasing of intensity and duration of influence of tempering factor;

-         systematic character – procedures have to be done regularly according to the present scheme;

-         complex character – purposeful connection of all organs and systems of the organism and influence of some environment factors during tempering;

-         individual regime and its correspondence to biological rhythmus of the organism.

Significance of tempering is in the following:

-         increases adaptation abilities of the organism to the unfavourable factors’ influence;

-         decreases sensitivity to respiratory and other infectious diseases;

-         increases working capacity;

-         forms positive physiological reactions.

Main tempering factors are not only air, water, solar radiation and corresponding capabilities of the organism, but also gradual increase of physical loading and autogenic training of psychological and physiological state.

Water as a tempering factor

Water procedures result in construction and dilatation of blood vessels that increase the organism resistance to fluctuations of environment temperature and lead to reflex influence on activity of organism organs and systems. Bathing, shower, dousing with water, rub-down, bathes for lower extremities and other water procedures are used for this purpose. There are such types of bathes according to the temperature as:

-         cold – les than 200C;

-         fresh – 20-330C;

-         indifferent – 34-360C;

-         warm – 36-390C;

-         hot – more than 400C.

If water is used for tempering, it is better to start with rub-down and only after 2-3 weeks begin dousing with water.

Hygienic requirements to equipment and mode of action of solaria and photaria

Solaria are specially equipped grounds/lawns outdoors for taking sun and air bathes.

Solaria are equipped at the flat place protected from wind with green plantation or shields, near the water reservoir, in the park or forest. The following parameters are used for equipment of this ground: sand, grass or wood covering, orientation on South, South-East, sufficient distance form sources of the air pollution and noise. There are trestle-beds of 40-60 cm height on the ground; shading area, meteorological post, broadcasting center to talk about doses of sun and air bathes, shower, medical post, check-rooms, post for issue of linen and beach equipment – near this ground.

Radiation has to be even, taking into account individual sensitivity of the skin.

UV radiation from artificial sources is carried out in photaria. People are irradiated with UV rays during certain period of time, in minutes. Photaria can be equipped differently. There are cabin, connecting or labyrinth types of photaria and photaria of beacon type. As sources of UV radiation erythemal (LE-30) or direct mercury-quartz (DMQ) lamps may be used.

Harmful habits

Drug abuse (or narcomania, from Greek narka – stupor, numbness; mania – madness) is persistent and morbid propensity of the person to drugs (opium, morphine, cocaine etc.) usage of them to feel excited, intoxication, which lead to disorders of mentality, deep personality changes and functions of internals. Drugs may cause pleasant psychological state even after single use, and psychological and physical dependence after multiple use.

Toxicomania (from Greek toxicon – poison, mania – madness) is a disease resulted from abuse of any substance which causes short-time subjective attractive psychological state. Essence of toxicomania is a poisoning and need for further poisoning. Substances with different chemical structure and pharmacological activity are used create general psychological and physical effect – euphoria, personality changes, behavioral disorders and social degradation. This term encloses all forms of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical substances abuse.

Alcohol abuse (Alcoholism) is a disease connected with systematic abuse of alcohol drinks which lead to psychological or physical disorders. As a result of alcohol abuse the alcohol intoxication is developed which is accompanied with emotional, motor, speech excitement, disappearance of self-control and critical assessment of situation. Frequent, excess alcohol abuse to receive euphoria effect may result in pathological passion accompanied by psychological and neurological disorders.

Tobacco abuse (Smoking) is a inhalation of substances with fume which causes both pleasant psychological state and the organism intoxication. Dry tobacco distillation takes place during smoking and some new substances are formed. Tobacco smoke consists of nearly 1 200 different substances, half of them have poison effect. There are such substances as nicotine and its derivatives, ammonia, carbon monoxide, prussic, acetic and formic acids, phenols, formaldehydes, hydrogen sulfide, carcinogenic matters, soot. The most poisoning substance of tobacco smoke is nicotine, its content depends on type and dryness of the tobacco. One drop of nicotine kills the dog, the leech, which has sucked the blood of inveterate smoker, dies. The lethal dose of nicotine for person who has never smoked before is 60-100 mg.

Program of healthy lifestyle consists of:

-         taking into account and usage of individual biorhythmus;

-         increasing psychological and emotional resistance (ability to to keep himself in check);

-         optimal motor activity for the organism;

-         rational food quality and eating patterns;

-         complex regular tempering;

-         hygienic behavior at home, during work;

-         regular physiological functions;

-         prevention, giving up harmful habits (drugs, alcohol and smoke abuse);

-         usage of biologically active substances and geroprotectors;

-         medical correction of different diseases (especially chronic diseases).


The physiological skin functions

The protective skin function from mechanical factors’ action and injuries is substantiated by its high elasticity, epidermal stretching and subcutaneous fat resiliency. Skin also protects the body from the physical factors’ influence: because of low heat conduction – from the heating action of some heat radiation levels to the cooling at some low temperature levels. Owing to melanin skin protects the body from the harmful action of ultraviolet and visible part of solar radiation. Owing to the keratoid layer skin is protected from drying and electric current within the limits of 1MOm.

Normal keratoid skin layer is rather resistant to the harmful chemical substances effect, except the liposoluble compounds and strong acids. Especially great importance is attributed to the barrier skin function in relation to microorganisms – bacteria, viruses, fungi. This function is substantiated by the mechanical barrier of keratoid epidermis, acid medium (pH = 5-6), sebum, sweat and proper skin hygiene.

The heat regulatory skin function: 82% of total heat irradiation occurs through skin – heat radiation, heat conduction, moisture evaporation (sweat) from the skin surface: in case of hot microclimate the skin vessels widen, the sweat is evaporated (the heat is selected for the hidden heat vaporization), while cool – the vessels narrow, the sweat is not evaporated, as a result – the skin temperature falls and heat loss is saved by radiation and evaporation.

The secretory skin function is fulfilled by its sebaceous and sweat glands; thanks to them water-fat emulsion which increases the protective skin functions is formed. Sebaceous glands also fulfill the excretory function: many toxic substances, lipids transformation products, drugs etc. are excreted with sebum.

Many waste products – NaCl, KCl, sulfates, phosphates, urea, uric acid, ammonium, amino acids, creatine and others are excreted with sweat. Apocrine inguinal and foot sweat glands excrete stinking substances of unpleasant smell, connected with the endocrinal sex glands.

The receptor skin function is fulfilled by means of thick neuroreceptors net. Skin fulfills the tactile function (sensation of touching and pressure), the temperature function (sensation of heat and cold) and pain sensitivity one.

D-vitamin forming skin function is substantiated by the fact that on the skin surface resulting from the solar and artificial UV radiation effect vitamin D3 is synthesized from 7-dehydrocholesterol, which constitutes the sebum. This vitamin is absorbed into blood, carried throughout the body; it fulfills the important function in metabolism, firstly in phosphorus-calcium metabolism.


Methods and means of skin cleanliness maintaining

Skin dirtying results from the accumulation of metabolic products, which are excreted with sebum, sweat and peeling of necrotized epidermis, from the deposition of clothes fibers, dust, microorganisms spreading and from the pollutants of everyday and occupational medium, where the person lives or works.

It’s necessary to wash off the dirt periodically for the normal skin functioning. According to human experience the normal skin functioning is possible in case of its washing weekly. In case of work with intensive external dirtying it’s necessary to wash skin daily. The main means for washing the skin is water. But because of sebum, everyday and technical oils insolubility in the water, skin cleansing can be effective only by means of soap and other washing means – washing agents use.

Hard soaps – are sodium salts of higher fatty acids triglycerides, liquid soaps – are potassium salts of higher fatty acids triglycerides.

To manufacture the synthetic washing agents (SWA) there are more than 100 formulae. The synthetic washing agents contain:

-                surface activity substances (SAS): alkylsulfates, alkylsulfonates, alkylarylsulfonates and others;

-                additions which contribute to the foaming (alkylolamide), to the fabrics softening and to the static electric charges taking away, to the prevention of the removed dirt deposition on the fabrics (carboxymethylcellulose - CMC), to the washing power of SAS (sodium tripolyphosphate and other phosphates), to the water softening (soda ash, tripolyphosphate, sodium bicarbonate and others), to supplying the washing solution with a pleasant smell, different bleachers (sodium perborate or optical bleaching agents). Some SWA contain disinfectants.

The main constituent for the SWA manufacturing is SAS, obtained from oil processing products.

SAS – are polar compounds which consist of hydrophobic (contributing to the division of molecules in oils) and hydrophilic (contributing to the division of molecules in water) molecules groups. The hydrophilic group includes: carbonyl (COO-), sulfate (-OSO3-), sulfonate (SO3-) groups, also the hydrophilic residues (CH2)4-O, and with the nitrogen content.

The hydrophobic group contains mainly paraffin chain (10-8 carbon atoms – aliphatic radicals) of benzene or naphthalene ring with alkyl radicals.

The synthetic SAS are divided into:

-                anionic (forming negative anions in water);

-                cationic (forming positive cations);

-                ampholytic (positive or negative depending on water pH);

-                nonionic (not forming ions but having strong bonds with water).

The anionic SAS – are the salts of sulfuric ethers (primary, secondary), alkylsulfates, fatty acids sulfates, alkyl benzene sulfonates, alkyl naphthalene sulfonates and others which have high foaming property, are less than cationic toxic property, are poorly absorbed by the skin and mucosa, are highly soluble on the sewerage system biological cleaning plant. But in the concentrated solutions (10-20%) the anionic SAS can result in skin irritation and allergic reactions (sulfonol НП-1, synthanol ДС-10, alkamon ОС-2), because of their permeability through the karotid epidermis.

The nonionic SAS (polyethylene glycol esters of fatty acids, fatty spirits, fatty amines, mercaptans, polypropylene glycols, alkylphenols) have higher washing power than anionic SAS. They can kill even tuberculosis mycobacterium. The sensitizing properties in high concentrations (10-20%) are typical for nonionic preparation OП-7. In the concentration to 1% these properties are not manifested.

The nonionic SAS can be co-carcinogenic and allergenic; they can increase skin permeability for different substances. For example, the mean for sanitary engineering cleaning “Cillit Magic” contains up to 5% of nonionic solvents, dyes and aromatizers, therefore it’s rather aggressive and requires one to use rubber gloves and to avoid contact with skin.

Alkylolamides in the concentration over 5% can cause irritating and allergenic effect.

Amphoteric compounds have no irritating and allergenic effect, but cause an unpleasant smell of SD which they belong to.

Hygienic requirements to the SD:

The degree of biological microorganism decomposition of ponds, where the sewage falls into, should reach 80%. So, the quickest and the most complete decomposition in water is typical for alkyksulfates and ether sulfates; sulphonol НП and sulphonol НП-3 are splitted slower (38% and 76%, respectively). Phosphates are better decomposited by microorganisms, but they contribute to the algae growth. Therefore, maximum allowable concentration (MAC) of SAS in ponds water shouldn’t exceed 0,5% mg/l for anionic and – 0,05-0,1% mg/l for nonionic ones.

SWA shouldn’t cause dermal-irritating reaction, toxic and allergenic effect on the body; they shouldn’t have any mutagenic, teratogenic, embryotoxic and carcinogenic properties; they shouldn’t have neither material nor functional accumulation in the body, should be easily washable off the human dermal surface, clothes, shoes, dishes and domestic objects; they should have high washing power and water solubility, without any unpleasant smell. Besides that, SD shouldn’t cause intensive skin degreasing, active reaction of their solution can’t exceed pH = 9.

Some SWA have definite requirements in terms of their bactericidal and disinfecting properties. Some other contain enzymes of proteolytic, amylolyticor or other activity, which provides more effective removal of protein, lipid or carbohydrate dirt.

SWA shouldn’t decrease the physical and chemical properties of the clothes and shoes material (air permeability, humidity ratio, vapour permeability, vaporability); they shouldn’t absorb in the tissues.

SWA for the washing up and washing of special equipment at catering enterprises, food, milk enterprises, meat and milk farming, meat-packing plants shouldn’t cause any steel constructions corrosion, and vice versa, should be easily washed off without any rubbing (only with water). These SWA include polyethylene glycol ethers, polypropylene glycols and disinfecting SWA (salts of quaternary ammonium compound chloramines B).

According to their physical structure SWA are manufactured in the form of powders, liquids, pastes and granules.

There are many synthetic washing powders of both domestic and foreign manufacturing. Among them the most widespread are:

-                “Lotos” («Лотос»), administered for the washing of cotton fabric. It is composed of: sulfonol, alkylsuphates, alkylsulfonates – 20-22%, sodium polyphosphate – 25%, sodium sulphate – 10%, sodium silicate – 10-13%, alkylolamides – 2%, optical breaching agent – 0,1-1,15%.

-                “Donbas” («Донбас»), which except the compounds that compose “Lotos”, includes soda ash – 10-20%.

-                “Era” («Ера»), which also includes sodium perborate – 8% and others.

Water hardness isn’t important for SWA: they don’t combine into insoluble compounds with calcium and magnesium salts; therefore they don’t loose their washing power even in cold water. At the same time the soaps in hard water combine into the compounds which impregnate clothes and linen fabric, decrease their ventilating capacity and other physical and chemical properties, and dye the linen into yellowish colour with an unpleasant smell.


Chemical means of skin protection

Protective ointments and pastes from harmful effect of chemical substances at the industry are also divided into hydrophobic and hydrophilic. The hydrophilic ointments and pastes are applied to protect the hands skin from oils, greases, oil products, solvents, varnishes, tars, glues and other organic compounds. They include: “Hiot” («Хіот») paste, “Zorya” («Зоря»), “Yalot” («Ялот») and others. Soap, starch, casein, beeswax, glycerin and others provide them with film-making properties (“biological gloves”). The hydrophilic ointments are easily washed off with water.

The hydrophobic protective ointments and pastes are applied to protect the hands skin from water solutions of aggressive and irritating substances. The pastes and ointments contain water-repellent compounds, insoluble in water (greases, nondrying oils, insoluble soaps). Silicone cream protects from solutions of acids, alkali, aggressive salts. Zinc stearate pastes protect from burns, artificial UV and intensive solar radiation. They include starch, glycerin, gelatin, porcelain clay, zinc oxide, graphite, talc, alum, tannin, colophony and others.

To wash dirty hands covered by paints, tars, bitumens and other organic compounds at painting, insulating and so on works, one should use washing pastes and ointments including abrasives (kaolin), porcelain clay, sand, soda ash, glycerin, vaseline, kerosene etc.

Bearing in mind the hygienic requirements, these means should correspond to the abovementioned conditions for SWA, first of all they shouldn’t cause any irritating or allergenic effect.


Hygienic characteristics of the body washing means

Bash-houses, saunas with their hot water and high temperature of saturated water steam contribute to the widening of sebaceous and sweat ducts, purification of skin and excretion of metabolic wastes from the body through the skin. Bash-houses were widespread in Ancient Rome time. According to their purpose the bath-houses are divided into toiletry, admission and mixed types. The most widespread are toiletry bath-houses (shower rooms or mixed ones). Besides, according to the mechanism of heat production they differentiate between steam bath-houses (Russian ones) and dry heat (Finnish) ones. In dry heat bath-houses (saunas) the microclimate is characterized by the combination of hot temperature (up to 100°C) with low relative humidity (15-20%). In the steam bath-houses the air temperature reaches 65-70%°C at the relative humidity over 75-80%. The contrast hydrothermal procedures have positive effect on the body and contribute to the normal physiological skin functions restoration.

Domestic means of the body washing such as showers, bathes are used by population more frequently despite of bath-houses and saunas, especially in rural, urban settlements, private houses (cottages). These means of the body washing are widespread especially if hot water-supply or means to receive hot water on point are present. From hygienic point of view they do not have any objections even have advantages if it is necessary of their immediate availability. But individual bathes have to be washed properly after each usage, public ones – obligatory disinfected also.

Bathwear / nakedness

Bathing usually involves the removal of at least some clothing; in private baths all clothing is removed. The amount of clothing removed depends on circumstance, custom, and willingness of bathers to reveal themselves. A swimsuit, swimming costume, or bathing suit is a garment designed for swimming or bathing. Typically a men's suit consists of shorts or briefs. A women's suit often consists of two pieces that cover the breasts and pubic region, or of one piece that resembles the combination of briefs and a tank top joined together.

Some European waterparks require bathers to be completely naked and baths are sometimes not separated by gender. Prior to the Meiji Restoration, bathing in Japan was mixed gender. Today, most Japanese baths are gender-segregated, while some rural Japanese baths are mixed gender. In both cases (mixed or segregated) public bathing in Japan is typically nude, with bathers carrying a small washtowel, although there are some mixed gender facilities where bathers wear swimsuits.

Frequency and time of the day

While it is customary for most people to bathe daily, personal hygiene habits vary, with some people bathing more than once a day and others every few days.

In Western culture, it is typical for people to bathe in the morning before starting the activities of the day or meeting with others outside the home. Arriving at work without having showered may be seen as a sign of unprofessionalism or slovenliness. In contrast, people in East Asia customarily bathe twice a day especially during the evening or the night, the rationale being that after a day's work one should remove sweat and dirt, in order to be comfortable and clean, thus keeping the bed clean.

Hazards of bathing

Drowning is one possible danger of bathing. In a shower bath drowning has been known to occur, even though the risks are less than in an immersion bath. Baths that have standing water involve a higher risk of drowning.

  • Heatstroke can also result from the use of sauna baths or other hot baths.

  • Hypothermia from using cool baths and not being sensitive to the cold or because of falling asleep, etcetera.

  • Ear infections, also known as swimmer's ear can result from water building up and the resulting increase in bacteria.

  • Impact injuries are also possible from landing inappropriately in a bath, from an elevation, or from collision with other bathers, or with the sides of the bath.

  • Irritation caused by bathing solutions or other cosmetic products.

  • Infection caused by sharing dirty bathwater or bathing with others.

  • Collapsing when getting out of the bath because of the sudden change in blood pressure can occur, particularly when the bath is hot. Fainting can lead to accidents (including drowning if one falls back into the bath).

  • With advanced age, some people experience a diminished ability to sense temperature, and must use extra care to avoid accidentally scalding themselves while bathing. This is also true of individuals of any age with sensory nerve damage. Caution is needed with children as well, as their body is much more sensitive to temperature and pain and they are more vulnerable to changes in temperature; this is particularly the case with infants.

  • Bathing infants too often has been linked to the development of asthma or severe eczema according to some researchers, including Michael Welch, chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics' section on allergy and immunology .


Soap is a surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning. It usually comes in a solid molded form, termed bars due to its historic and most typical shape. The use of thick liquid soap has also become widespread, especially from soap dispensers in public washrooms. Applied to a soiled surface, soapy water effectively holds particles in suspension so the whole of it can be rinsed off with clean water. In the developed world, synthetic detergents have superseded soap as a laundry aid.

Many soaps are mixtures of sodium (soda ash) or potassium (potash) salts of fatty acids which can be derived from oils or fats by reacting them with an alkali (such as sodium hydroxide/caustic soda/lye or potassium hydroxide) at 80 – 100 °C in a process known as saponification. The fats are hydrolyzed by the base, yielding glycerol and crude soap. Historically, the alkali used was potassium hydroxide made from the deliberate burning of vegetation such as bracken, or from wood ashes.

Soap is derived from either oils or fats. Sodium tallowate, a common ingredient in many soaps, is in fact derived from rendered beef fat. Soap can also be made of vegetable oils, such as palm oil, and the product is typically softer. If soap is made from pure olive oil it may be called Castile soap or Marseille soap. Castile is also sometimes applied to soaps with a mix of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. The word "soap" is used colloquially to refer to a variety of cleaning solutions, including many that do not list soap as an ingredient but are instead detergents.

Although the word 'soap' continues to be used informally in everyday speech and product labels, in practice nearly all kinds of "soap" in use today are actually synthetic detergents, which are less expensive and easier to manufacture. While effort has been made to reduce their negative effect upon the environment, the results have been mixed.

Soaps are useful for cleaning because soap molecules attach readily to both nonpolar molecules (such as grease or oil) and polar molecules (such as water). Although grease will normally adhere to skin or clothing, the soap molecules can attach to it as a "handle" and make it easier to rinse away. Allowing soap to sit on any surface (skin, clothes etc) over time can imbalance the moisture content on it and result in the dissolving of fabrics and dryness of skin.

(fatty end)  :CH3-(CH2)n - COONa: (water soluble end)

The hydrocarbon ("fatty") portion dissolves dirt and oils, while the ionic end makes it soluble in water. Therefore, it allows water to remove normally-insoluble matter by emulsification.

The history and process of soap making

Early History

The earliest known evidence of soap use are Babylonian clay cylinders dating from 2800 BC containing a soap-like substance. A formula for soap consisting of water, alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC.

The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) indicates that ancient Egyptians bathed regularly and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents mention that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving.

Roman History

It is commonly reported that a soap factory with bars of scented soap was found in the ruins of Pompeii (79 AD). However, this has proved to be a misinterpretation of the survival of some soapy mineral substance, probably soapstone at the Fullonica where it was used for dressing recently cleansed textiles. Unfortunately this error has been repeated widely and can be found in otherwise reputable texts on soap history. The ancient Romans were generally ignorant of soap's detergent properties, and made use of the strigil to scrape dirt and sweat from the body. The word "soap" appears first in a European language in Pliny the Elder's Historia Naturalis, which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair; he mentions rather disapprovingly that among the Gauls and Germans men are likelier to use it than women.

A story encountered in some places claims that soap takes its name from a supposed "Mount Sapo" where ancient Romans sacrificed animals. Rain would send a mix of animal tallow and wood ash down the mountain and into the clay soil on the banks of the Tiber. Eventually, women noticed that it was easier to clean clothes with this "soap". The location of Mount Sapo is unknown, as is the source of the "ancient Roman legend" to which this tale is typically credited.[2] In fact, the Latin word sapo simply means "soap"; it was borrowed from a Celtic or Germanic language, and is cognate with Latin sebum, "tallow", which appears in Pliny the Elder's account. Roman animal sacrifices usually burned only the bones and inedible entrails of the sacrificed animals; edible meat and fat from the sacrifices were taken by the humans rather than the gods. Animal sacrifices in the ancient world would not have included enough fat to make much soap. The legend about Mount Sapo is probably apocryphal.

Arab History

The Arabs made soap from vegetable oil such as olive oil and some aromatic oils such as thyme oil. Lye (Al-Soda Al-Kawia) was used for the first time, and the formula hasn't changed from the current soap sold in the market. From the beginning of the 7th century, soap was produced in Nablus (Palestine), Kufa (Iraq) and Basra (Iraq). Soaps, as we know them today, are descendants of historical Arabian Soaps. Arabian Soap was perfumed and colored, some of the soaps were liquid and others were hard. They also had special soap for shaving. It was commercially sold for 3 Dirhams (0.3 Dinars) a piece in 981 AD. Al-Razi’s manuscript contains recipes for soap. A recently discovered manuscript from the 13th century details more recipes for soap making; e.g. take some sesame oil, a sprinkle of potash, alkali and some lime, mix them all together and boil. When cooked, they are poured into molds and left to set, leaving hard soap.

Historically, soap was made by mixing animal fats with lye. Because of the caustic lye, this was a dangerous procedure (perhaps more dangerous than any present-day home activities) which could result in serious chemical burns or even blindness. Before commercially-produced lye []sodium hydroxide] was commonplace, potash potassium hydroxide was produced at home for soap making from the ashes of a hardwood fire.

Castile soap was produced in Europe as early as the 16th century.

Modern History

In modern times, the use of soap has become universal in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. Manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late nineteenth century, and advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States helped to increase popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health. By the 1950s, soap had gained public acceptance as an instrument of personal hygiene.

Rarely, conditions allow for corpses to naturally turn in to a soap-like substance, such as the Soap Lady on exhibit in the Mutter Museum.

Purification and finishing

The common process of purifying soap involves removal of sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and glycerol. These components are removed by boiling the crude soap curds in water and re-precipitating the soap with salt.

Most of the water is then removed from the soap. This was traditionally done on a chill roll which produced the soap flakes commonly used in the 1940s and 1950s. This process was superseded by spray dryers and then by vacuum dryers.

The dry soap (approximately 6-12% moisture) is then compacted into small pellets. These pellets are now ready for soap finishing, the process of converting raw soap pellets into a salable product, usually bars.

Soap pellets are combined with fragrances and other materials and blended to homogeneity in an amalgamator (mixer). The mass is then discharged from the mixer into a refiner which, by means of an auger, forces the soap through a fine wire screen. From the refiner the soap passes over a roller mill (French milling or hard milling) in a manner similar to calendering paper or plastic or to making chocolate liquor. The soap is then passed through one or more additional refiners to further plasticize the soap mass. Immediately before extrusion it passes through a vacuum chamber to remove any entrapped air. It is then extruded into a long log or blank, cut to convenient lengths, passed through a metal detector and then stamped into shape in refrigerated tools. The pressed bars are packaged in many ways.

Sand or pumice may be added to produce a scouring soap. This process is most common in creating soaps used for human hygiene. The scouring agents serve to remove dead skin cells from the surface being cleaned. This process is called exfoliation. Many newer materials are used for exfoliating soaps which are effective but do not have the sharp edges and poor size distribution of pumice.

Handmade soap

Handmade soaps sold at a shop in Hyères, France

Some individuals continue to make soap in the home. The traditional name "soaper", for a soapmaker, is still used by those who make soap as a hobby or as an occupation. The most popular soapmaking processes today is the cold process method, where fats such as olive oil react with lye. Soapmakers sometimes use the melt and pour process, where a premade soap base is melted and poured in individual molds, but this is not really to be considered soap-making. Some soapers also practice other processes, such as the historical hot process, and make special soaps such as clear soap (aka glycerin soap).

Handmade soap differs from industrial soap in that, usually, an excess of fat is used to consume the alkali (superfatting), and in that the glycerin is not removed. Superfatted soap, soap which contains excess fat, is more skin-friendly than industrial soap; though, if not properly formulated, it can leave users with a "greasy" feel to their skin. Often, emollients such as jojoba oil or shea butter are added 'at trace' (the point at which the saponification process is sufficiently advanced that the soap has begun to thicken), after most of the oils have saponified, so that they remain unreacted in the finished soap.


Today, fat-based soaps have mostly been superseded by modern detergents. Washing agents do not contain soap for cleaning fabric, but for reducing foam.

The disadvantages of commercial soaps are:

  • Most commercial soaps have had their glycerine removed for use in other industries, which deprives the skin of the natural, moisturizing glycerine and generally leaves the skin feeling dry.

  • Some antibacterial soaps have antiseptic chemicals that can kill "healthy" bacteria that live symbiotically on the skin's surface and contribute to skin health. There is a theoretical risk of antibacterial additives, such as Triclosan, in soaps contributing to antibiotic resistant bacteria, however, controlled studies have not borne out that conclusion.[2] When Triclosan is discharged into the environment and exposed to sunlight, it breaks down to yield dioxins.[3]

  • Soap-based products often contain the additive detergent sodium laureth sulfate, which research has found to be harsh on skin. This product is also present in many non-soap cleaners for personal hygiene (shampoos, bathfoams, toothpaste, etc.).

  • Soap can have a mild base reaction with fabrics, resulting in damage over the long term. This could be due to excess sodium hydroxide (NaOH, an alkali/base) left from manufacture. This, however, is highly unlikely since most soap manufacturers don't formulate their soaps to have excess lye but rather excess oil or fat. It could also be caused by the very slight presence of NaOH from the equilibrium reaction:

R-COO-Na + H2O ↔ R-COO- + Na+ + H2O ↔ R-COOH + NaOH

  • However, this equilibrium strongly favors the left-hand side so the fraction of NaOH formed is minuscule. It could simply be that soap itself is more alkaline in general and that this, in and of itself, is the cause for the damage.

  • Soap reacts with lime to form an insoluble deposit (soap scum) in "hard water":2Na+(R-COO)- (aq) + Ca2+(HCO3-)2(aq) → 2Na+(HCO3)-(aq) + Ca(R-COO)2(s) - where R stands for an alkyl group (ppt)

  • Poorly finished soaps may contain excess alkali (NaOH) and react mildly basically with skin and fabric; Most handmade and commercial products are finished to neutrality or to a weak acid content to prevent this and be more compatible with the skin's slightly acidic pH.

  • Castile soap has a very high alkalinity level, measured at about 9. pH of skin and hair has a slightly acidic pH level known to be about 5 to 6. Due to the high pH level, soapmakers who market liquid castile soap do not usually recommend it for washing hair, because it may cause hair to become dry. Those that do often recommend an acidic final rinse, such as with diluted vinegar, to restore the pH and remove any soap scum resulting from rinsing with hard water.

See also


Oral hygiene

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean. Oral hygiene is a health program to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders.Oral hygiene consists of both personal and professional care. Dental X-rays (radiographs) may be performed as part of routine professional examinations


Personal care

Brushing and flossing

Careful and frequent brushing with a toothbrush and flossing help to prevent build-up of plaque bacteria that change carbohydrate in our meals or snacks to acid which demineralises tooth eventually leading to tooth decay and toothache if acid episodes are frequent or are not prevented. Calculus (dental) or tartar buildup on teeth usually opposite salivary ducts is due to calcium deposits in resident plaque. Frequent brushing and swishing saliva around helps prevent these deposits. Cavities can be costly, in terms of the monetary cost to drill out the cavities and insert dental fillings, and in terms of the tissue already damaged.

Almost all cavities occur where food is trapped between teeth and inside deep pits and fissures in grooves on chewing surfaces where the brush, toothpaste, mouthwash, saliva and chewing gum, cannot reach.

Removing food from between teeth is easy before brushing to help saliva and fluoride access to neutralise acid and repair demineralised tooth, but chewing fibre like celery string is necessary to force saliva inside deep grooves after eating.

Special appliances or tools may be recommended to supplement (but not to replace) toothbrushing and flossing. These include special toothpicks, water irrigation, or other devices. Initially electric toothbrushes were only recommended for persons who have problems with strength or dexterity of their hands, but many dentists are now recommending them to many other patients in order to improve their home dental care. In many parts of the world natural toothbrushes are used. In the Muslim world the miswak or siwak is made from twigs or roots that are alleged to have an antiseptic effect when applied as a toothbrush.




1-st group of Hygienic indices are used to estimate S of tooth crown that is covered by plaque. ( Fedorov – Volodkina index, Green-Vermillion index, Ramfiord index, Navy-Quigley-Hein index, Turecky index)


Fedorov – Volodkina index (oral hygiene index (OHI))


For  this index solution of Shiller-Pisarev (with iodine) is applied to 6 frontal mandible teeth for few minutes.


1 – surface is not colored

2 – ¼ of tooth surface is colored

3 – ½ of tooth surface is colored

4 – ¾ of tooth surface is colored

5 – all tooth surface is colored


Total results we will get with the formula:

HI =

∑ – sum of scores of every tooth



1,1 – 1,5 points – oral hygiene index is good

1,6 – 2,0 points – satisfactory

2,1 – 2,5 points– poor

2,6 – 3,4 points– bad

3,5 -5,0 points – very bad


Food and drink in relation to oral hygiene

Foods that help your muscles and bones also help teeth and gums. Dairy contributes vitamin D, strengthening teeth. Breads and cereals are rich in vitamin B while fruits and vegetables contain vitamin C, both of which contribute to healthy gum tissue. Lean meat, fish, and poultry provide magnesium and zinc for teeth. Some people recommend that teeth be brushed after every meal and at bedtime, and flossed at least once per day, preferably at night before sleep. For some people, flossing might be recommended after every meal.

Dentists and dental hygienists can instruct and demonstrate brushing and flossing techniques.

 Better: Some foods may protect against cavities. Milk and cheese appear to be able to raise pH values in the mouth, and so reduce tooth exposure to acid. They are also rich in calcium and phosphate, and may also encourage remineralisation. All foods increase saliva production, and since saliva contains buffer chemicals this helps to stabilise the pH at just above 7 in the mouth. Foods high in fiber may also help to increase the flow of saliva. Unsweetened (basically sugar free) chewing gum stimulates saliva production, and helps to clean the surface of the tooth.

 Worse: Sugars are commonly associated with dental cavities. Other carbohydrates, especially cooked starches, e.g. crisps/potato chips, may also damage teeth, although to a much lesser degree. This is because starch is not an ideal food for the bacteria. It has to be converted by enzymes in saliva first.

Sucrose (table sugar) is most commonly associated with cavities, although glucose and maltose seem equally gervic (likely to cause cavities). The amount of sugar consumed at any one time is less important than how often food and drinks that contain sugar are consumed. The more frequently sugars are consumed, the greater the time during which the tooth is exposed to low pH levels, at which point demineralisation occurs. It is important therefore to try to encourage infrequent consumption of food and drinks containing sugar so that teeth have a chance to repair themselves. Obviously, limiting sugar-containing foods and drinks to meal times is one way to reduce the incidence of cavities.

Artificially refined sugar is not the only type that can promote dental cavities. There are also sugars found in fresh fruit and fruit juices. These foods (oranges, lemons, limes, apples, etc.) also contain acids which lower the pH level. On the other hand, carbonic acid found in soda water is very weakly acidic (pH 6.1), and not associated with dental cavities(provided the soft drink is sugar free, of course). That said, soft drinks are not as healthy for the teeth as milk, due to their lower pH and lack of calcium. Drinking sugared soft drinks throughout the day raises the risk of dental cavities tremendously.

Another factor which affects the risk of developing cavities is the stickiness of foods. Some foods or sweets may stick to the teeth and so reduce the pH in the mouth for an extended time, particularly if they are sugary. It is important that teeth be cleaned at least twice a day, preferably with a toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste, to remove any food sticking to the teeth. Regular brushing and the use of dental floss also removes the dental plaque coating the tooth surface.

Chewing gum assists oral irrigation between and around the teeth, cleaning and removing particles, but for teeth in poor condition it may damage or remove loose fillings as well.

Smoking and chewing tobacco are both linked with multiple dental hazards. Regular vomiting, as seen in victims of bulimia, also causes significant damage.


Retainers- can be cleaned in mouthwash or denture cleaning fluid. Fluoride-containing, or anti-plaque (tartar control) toothpastes or mouthwashes may be recommended by the dentist or dental hygienist. Dental braces may be recommended by a dentist for best oral hygiene and health. Dentures, retainers, and other appliances must be kept extremely clean. This includes regular brushing and may include soaking them in a cleansing solution.

Regular tooth cleaning by the dental hygienist is recommended to remove tartar (mineralized plaque) that may develop even with careful brushing and flossing, especially in areas that are difficult for a patient to reach on his own at home. Professional cleaning includes tooth scaling and tooth polishing and debridement if too much tartar has accumulated. This involves the use of various instruments or devices to loosen and remove deposits from the teeth.

Most dental hygienists recommend having the teeth professionally cleaned at least every six month.

More frequent cleaning and examination may be necessary during the treatment of many of the dental/oral disorders. Routine examination of the teeth is recommended at least every year. This may include yearly, select dental X-rays.

However, in between cleanings by a dental hygienist, everyone must have good oral hygiene to support the professional care.


Usually there are no complications to the upkeep of oral hygiene; however, overly vigorous or incorrectly performed brushing or flossing may result in injury to the gingiva (gums). Some results of improper or over vigorous brushing may include: worn-out bristles, unusually sore gums, damage to enamel of teeth, gingivitis and bleeding gums.

One should always call the dentist or dental hygienist if instructions or demonstration of proper brushing or flossing techniques is needed, or to schedule routine dental cleaning and examination.

The toothbrush

The toothbrush     is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. Toothpaste, often containing fluoride, is commonly added to a toothbrush to aid in cleaning. Toothbrushes are offered with varying textures of bristles, and come in many different sizes and forms. Most dentists recommend using a toothbrush labelled "Soft", since firmer bristled toothbrushes can really damage tooth enamel and irritate gums as indicated by the American Dental Association. Toothbrushes are often made from synthetic fibers, although natural toothbrushes are also known in many parts of the world.


A variety of oral hygiene measures have been used since before recorded history. This has been verified by various excavations done all over the world, in which toothpicks, chewsticks, tree twigs, strips of linen, bird feathers, animal bones and porcupine quills were recovered. The first modern idea of a toothbrush is believed to have been invented in China around 1600. However, many other peoples used different forms of toothbrushes. Ancient Indian medicine has used the neem tree and its products to create toothbrushes and similar products for millenia. In the Muslim world, the miswak, or siwak, made from a twig or root with antiseptic properties is widely used. Rubbing baking soda or chalk against the teeth was also common.

William Addis of England is credited with creating the first mass-produced toothbrush in 1780. In 1770 he had been placed in jail for causing a riot. While in prison, he decided that the method for teeth brushing of the time – rubbing a rag on one's teeth with soot and salt – could be improved. So he took a small animal bone, drilled small holes in it, obtained some bristles from a guard, tied them in tufts, then passed the bristles through the holes on the bone and glued them.

The first patent for a toothbrush was by H. N. Wadsworth in 1850 in the United States, but mass production of the product in America only started in 1885. The rather advanced design had a bone handle with holes bored into it for the Siberian Boar hair bristles. Boar wasn't an ideal material; it retained bacteria, it didn't dry well, and the bristles would often fall out of the brush. It wasn't until World War II, however, that the concept of brushing teeth really caught on in the U.S., in part due to the fact that it was part of American soldiers' regular daily duty to clean their teeth. It was a practice that they brought back to their home life after the conclusion of the war

Natural bristles (from animal hair) were replaced by synthetic fibers, usually nylon, by DuPont in 1938. The first nylon bristle toothbrush, made with nylon yarn, went on sale on February 24, 1938. The first electric toothbrush, the Broxodent, was introduced by the Bristol-Myers Company (now Bristol-Myers Squibb) at the centennial of the American Dental Association in 1959.

In January 2003, the toothbrush was selected as the number one invention Americans could not live without, beating out the automobile, computer, cell phone, and microwave oven, according to the Lemelson-MIT Invention Index

Electric toothbrushes

The first electric toothbrush was developed in 1939 in Scotland, but did not appear on the open market until the 1960s, when it was marketed as the Broxodent in the United States by Squibb. In 1961, General Electric introduced a rechargeable cordless toothbrush that moved up and down when activated. 

In 1987, the first rotary action toothbrush for home use, the Interplak, appeared in shops for the general public. There are currently many different varieties of model that use this mechanism. Research shows that they tend to be somewhat (but not extremely) more effective at removing plaque and preventing gingival bleeding than manual toothbrushes and vibrating toothbrushes. Evolution of the modern toothbrush

Different kind of brushes

The Cochrane study separated the electrical toothbrush designs into:

  • side-to-side

  • circular

  • ultra-sonic vibration, like the Sonicare manufactured by Philips - which claims to have a secondary cleaning action caused by vibrating saliva[7]

  • rotation-oscillation in which a circular head spins back and forth in quick bursts - like many of Braun's Oral B-brushes.

  • counter oscillation, in which tufts of bristles rotate in different directions simultaneously

See also

1.     ^ American Artifacts - Dr. Scott's Quack Electric Devices

2.     ^ Academy of General Dentistry - Dental advances

3.     ^ - Toothbrush History

4.     ^ Thumbs down for electric toothbrush - BBC News

5.     ^ [1] Penick, Catherine (2004) Power toothbrushes: a critical review - International Journal of Dental Hygiene 2 (1), 40-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2004.00048.x

6.     ^ Manual versus powered tooth brushing for oral health. Commentary

7.     ^ Sonicare ® toothbrushes : How do sonic toothbrushes work?



Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. It is almost always used in conjunction with a toothbrush. Toothpaste use can promote good oral hygiene: it can aid in the removal of dental plaque and food from the teeth, it can aid in the elimination and/or masking of halitosis, and it can deliver active ingredients such as fluoride to prevent tooth and gums (Gingiva) disease. Most people in developed countries consider toothpaste a necessity and use it at least once a day.


The earliest known reference to a toothpaste is in a manuscript from Egypt in the 4th century A.D., which prescribes a mixture of powdered salt, pepper, mint leaves, and iris flowers. The Romans used toothpaste formulations based on human urine. An 18th century American toothpaste recipe containing burnt bread has been found. Another formula around this time called for dragon's blood (a resin), cinnamon, and burnt alum.

However, toothpastes or powders did not come into general use until the 19th century in Britain. In the early 1800s, the toothbrush was usually used only with water, but tooth powders soon gained popularity. Most were home made, with chalk, pulverized brick, and salt being common ingredients. An 1866 Home Encyclopedia recommended pulverized charcoal, and cautioned that many patented tooth powders then commercially marketed did more harm than good.

By 1900, a paste made of hydrogen peroxide and baking soda was recommended. Pre-mixed toothpastes were first marketed in the 19th century, but did not surpass the popularity of tooth-powder until World War I. In New York City in 1896, Colgate & Company manufactured toothpaste in the first collapsible tube, similar to that recently introduced for artists' paints.

Fluoride was first added to toothpastes in 1914, and was criticized by the American Dental Association (ADA) in 1937. Fluoride toothpastes developed in the 1950s received the ADA's approval. Countries limit and suggest different amounts acceptable for health. Much of Africa has a slightly higher percent than the U.S.

In June, 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration and similar agencies in Panama, Puerto Rico and Australia advised consumers to avoid, return, or discard certain brands of toothpaste manufactured in China, after batches of Chinese made toothpaste were found to be contaminated with the poisonous chemical Diethylene glycol, also called Diglycol or Diglycol stearate, (or labelled as "DEG" on the tube). The chemical is used in antifreeze as a solvent and is potentially fatal.

Toothpaste is most commonly sold in flexible tubes, though harder containers are available. The hard containers stand straight up, availing more of the toothpaste and saving shelf space.

Ingredients and flavors

Sodium fluoride (NaF) is the most popular active ingredient in toothpaste to prevent cavities; some brands use sodium monofluorophosphate (Na2PO3F). Nearly all toothpaste sold in the United States has 1000 to 1100 parts per million fluoride ion from one of these active ingredients, in the UK the fluoride content is often higher, a NaF of 0.32% w/w (1450ppm fluoride) is not uncommon. This consistency leads some to conclude that cheap toothpaste is just as good as expensive toothpaste. When the magazine Consumer Reports rated toothpastes in 1998, 30 of the 38 were judged excellent.

Many, though not all, toothpastes contain sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or another of the sulfate family. SLS is found in other personal care products as well, such as shampoo, and is largely a foaming agent. SLS may cause a greater frequency of mouth ulcers in some people as it can dry out the protective layer of oral tissues causing the underlying tissues to become damaged. Some brands include powdered white mica. This acts as a mild abrasive to aid polishing of the tooth surface, and also adds a cosmetically-pleasing glittery shimmer to the paste. Many may include frustules of dead diatoms, as a mild abrasive.

Ingredients such as baking soda, enzymes, vitamins, herbs, calcium, calcium sodium phosphosilicate, mouthwash, and/or hydrogen peroxide are often combined into base mixes and marketed as being beneficial. Some manufacturers add antibacterial agents, for example triclosan or zinc chloride. Triclosan is a very common ingredient in the UK.

Toothpaste comes in a variety of flavors, most often being some variation on mint (spearmint, peppermint, regular mint, etc). Other more exotic flavors include: anise, apricot, bubblegum (marketed mostly to children), cinnamon, fennel, neem, ginger, vanilla, lemon, orange, pine. Flavors which have been introduced but discontinued due to poor reception include peanut butter, iced tea, and even whisky. Some brands of toothpaste are unflavored,  but many are both flavored and sweetened. Because sugar can cause tooth decay, artificial sweeteners are generally employed for this purpose. The inclusion of sweet-tasting but highly toxic diethylene glycol in Chinese-made toothpaste led to a multi-nation and multi-brand toothpaste recall in 2007.

Many toothpastes contain colorings for better visual acceptance.

Toothpaste is not intended to be swallowed. Some types of toothpaste may cause nausea or diarrhea if swallowed in excess quantity. Extended consumption while the teeth are forming can result in fluorosis. This is why young children should not use toothpaste except under close supervision. There are several non-fluoride toothpaste options available in the market for those with no tolerance to fluoride.

Striped toothpaste

Striping of toothpaste is solely for the purpose of providing an alternative appearance; it provides no functional benefit to the consumer.

Striped toothpaste can be produced by including two different colored toothpastes in an unusual type of packaging. The collapsible tube has two tanks, one filled with each color paste (see figure). Squeezing the tube pushes the two pastes out the opening. The tube nozzle layers the pastes to produce a striped pattern.

To keep the cost of packaging to a minimum, it is now common for tubes to be filled with striped paste (e.g. Aquafresh). As the tube is squeezed, the stripes flow parallel to each other and do not mix. The patterned paste that gets dipensed is simply a narrower version of what is in the tube. Filling is done using a multi-nozzle filling head that dispenses a different colored stripe in each direction. To keep the stripes parallel to the axis of the tube, the head starts at the bottom and retracts as it fills, staying just above the level of the paste. Tubes with two compartments are generally reserved for toothpastes containing two formulas intended to react together and therefore kept isolated until dispensed.


Characteristics of the organism biological rhythmus and their classification

Good health state and high level of work capacity of the human depend on synchronization of the organism vital activity, i.e. the central nervous system ability to provide interaction of different periodic functions of the organism and coincidence of both the organism and environment rhythmics.

It was established, that heart rate and respiratory rate of healthy person have the 4/1 relation. Any changes of this relation are the evidence of the certain connection disturbance in the organism and allow to draw a conclusion that some organism functions are out of order, and certain unfavourable changes in the health state are taking place.

Biorhythms are defined as periodic changes of the physiological and psychological processes intensity during time period. Biorhythms are typical for all living organisms on the Earth and are precondition to provide the normal vital activity of them according to the main nature rhythms, resulted from Earth revolution around the sun and stars and leading to change of seasons, day and night, influence of Moon phases, high and low tide etc.

Disorders and changes of biological rhythms significantly influence psychological and physiological functions, psychological and emotional state of the human and are the result of social conditions of life and urbanization factors (work on different shifts in industry, long-distance travel and flights etc.). These disorders may be the cause of significant psychological and emotional loading, neurosis and even marked disturbances of criteria indices of the mental health.

There are different classifications of biological rhythms. They are based on the frequency characteristics, organization level of biological systems and peculiarities of interaction between the organism and environment.

Periodic processes are observed at the different organization level of living systems and cover the highest frequency band. The most complete classification of biological rhythms by their frequency characteristics was proposed by N.I. Moiseeva and V.M. Sysuev (1981). Five main classes of biological rhythms may be defined according to this classification:

Class 1 –high frequency rhythms (period from milliseconds to 30 minutes; oscillation on molecular level, heart and respiratory rate, intestinal peristalsis etc.);

Class 2 –middle frequency rhythms (from 30 minutes to 28 hours), including

ultradian (to 20 hours) and circadian (from 20 to 28 hours) rhythms;

Class 3 – mesorhythms (from 28 hours to 20 days), including infradian (from 28 hours to 6ays) and circaceptidal (near days);

Class 4 – macrorhytms (from 20 days to 1year);

Class 5 – megarhythms (from 1 year to decades).

Another very important criterion of biorhytms classification is by organization level of biosystems. According to this criterion, such biorhythms as cellular, organ, organism and population are defined.

By peculiarities of interaction between the organism and environment one defines adaptive biological rhythms, i.e. oscillation with periods similar to main geophysical cycles, they are synchronizers of external and internal rhythms and physiological ones, which reflect the state of the organism physiological systems.


Desynchronosis and methods of their prevention. Chronohygiene

Based on scientific research, it was established, that a lot of pathological states are resulted from the biological rhythms disturbance. Such states are named desynchronosis. They may appear during studying, training, other types of human activity, including development of different diseases.

An example of the desynchronosis is arrhythmic pulse among people suffering from cardio-vascular diseases, changes of respiratory rate among people suffering from pneumonia, bronchial asthma, changes of intestinal peristalsis among people suffering from gastro-intestinal diseases etc.

Vascular resistance during essential hypertension is higher at nighttime, than at daytime. Intracellular enzyme activity of patient suffering from angina pectoris is lower at nighttime than at daytime. Patients suffering from myocardial infarction have disturbances of the electrolytic metabolism daily rhythms: increased sodium and decreased potassium concentration in red blood cells at nighttime; lipid exchange rhythm is also disordered; the contractile myocardial function is depressed especially in the evening.

Patients with hepatocirrhosis have the following desynchronosis: essentially depressed amplitude of the daily rhythm of the steroid hormones excretion comparing to healthy one, significant disturbances of the bioenergetic process rhythms are also registered etc.

Marked desynchronosis are registered among patients suffering from endocrine diseases: daily changes of glucose concentration in blood (diabetes mellitus), 17-oxycorticosteroids, catecholamines and electrolytes excretion (pancreatitis), other significant disorders of metabolism rhythm (diseases of hypothalamohypophysial and diencephalic systems).

Patients suffering from manic-depressive psychosis have the acute attack of manic phase as desynchronosis of the “calm-activity” biorhythm cycle. Rhythms disorders of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis are registered during stress situations resulted from influence of extremal environment factors.

Branch of medical science chronomedicine (and corresponding branches – chronotherapy, chronopharmacology, chronohygiene) was formed based on the research of desynchronosis and causes of their appearance. At the heart of this discipline is elaboration of optimal timing schemes of therapeutic, pharmacodynamic and preventive means and methods. The most effective regime of occupational activity, time and optimal duration of rest, sleep periods and time for eating were worked out for people working in different shifts. Also the rest duration and regime after flight were elaborated for pilots who cross several time zones. Special programs were worked out for occupational selection of people, the most capable for flight on different shifts and leaving out people unable for such type of work, taking into account their biorhythmic peculiarities.

It has been underlined that all people have different daily regimes of work capacity. Some of them - so called “larks”, work with high energy before noon; some - so called “owls” – after noon. L. Tolstoy, A. Chekhov, E. Hemingway preferred to work early in the morning. “Owls” went to bed late, woke up in the morning with some difficulties, had the highest work capacity in the evening or even at night. H. de Balsac and D. Mendeleev preferred to work at night.

Each human should know his personal rhythm of work capacity. If you determine your period of the highest work capacity, you may use this time for the most complicated and important tasks, while periods of the work capacity decreasing may be used for less important work.

Individual peculiarities of each person’s biorhythms have to be taken into account during organization of occupational activity and rest. The organization of the labour regime on second and third shifts in industry has to be coordinated with the individual biorhythm peculiarities in such way, that intensive load takes place during natural periods of increased work capacity. Special attention has to be given to professions, which are characterized with high responsibility or high monotony.

It is important for each person to develop individual rhythm of activity during a shift, increasing pace of work during periods of the high work capacity and taking short rest if fatigue appears.

Day sleep has been organized for the desynchronosis prevention and the work capacity increasing. It is recommended to organize the day rest in such way, that this rest corresponds to night sleep by its conditions. Silence, absence of external irritants, darkening etc. allow person to recuperate quicker and adapt to temporary changes of vital rhythm. Day sleep in conditions, which imitate the night, helps the organism to adapt quickly to unusual regimes. Another condition, which provides high work capacity during night time, is organization of obligatory hot nutrition. This type of nutrition compensates energy expenditure of the organism, and also is an effective timer. Longer working at night shift is better for the organism. Shorter night work periods are not very good due to the fact that the organism has not enough time for the work and rest changes adaptation.

Desynchronosis are observed among astronauts during their stay on the near-earth orbit. Unusual labour conditions in Space require maximum energy, attention and force in any time. It is very difficult, taking into account the fact, that astronauts meet the sunrise in Space up to 20 times per 24 hours. System of measures is directed to keep usual “earth” 24-hour rhythms for the desynchronosis prevention. Special films, radio- and TV-programs of connection with the Earth and other measures are used. These measures allow the astronauts to keep high work capacity during the flight.

Significant reorganization of biorhythms is necessary during flights across 4-5 time zones. According to the data of French researchers, 78% of the air personnel people flying on long distances have the desynchronosis disturbances. The company “British Airways” worked out the standard for its pilots: the pilot can cross not more than 40 time zones in any direction during 28 days.

There are some rules, which ease the human adaptation to the time zone changes. If the time zone change is for limited period of time, it is advisable to keep the work and rest regime similar to usual. If work at new place needs maximum load, it is necessary to change the work and rest regime gradually and in advance, adapting to new time zone.

Having some knowledge on biological rhythms, doctor and patient, taking into account the physician’s recommendations, may plan treatment and preventive measures which prevent the desynchronosis development.

The biological rhythms consist in the self-maintaining independent processes of the organism states periodical shifts and the vibration of the individual’s physiological reactions intensity.

A man has a complex hierarchy and strict time order in the establishment of his personal biorhythmic structure resulting from the internal and external synchronizers action. Moreover, the entire organism can exist only under proper phase interrelations of different fluctuation processes in cells, tissues, organs and functional systems on one hand; on the other hand – their absolute synchronization with the environment. So, health status is a status of the optimal harmony between time structure of the internal organism medium and the influence of the environmental factors; the biological rhythms display the shifts of various indices of physiological processes of wave-shaped form.

Various rhythmical vibrations of definite states of the living systems are registered with a frequency from once per millisecond to once per several years. The most significant for a human are ultradian (the period length is 0.5-20 hours), circadian (20-28 hours), infradian (28-60 hours) and circaceptidal (60-148 hours) biological rhythms.

The main characteristics of the biological rhythms are: level, period, amplitude, acrophase and a form of rhythm day curve (fig. 1).


Fig. 1 Graphic image of a typical biological rhythm and its main characteristics

(Amp – rhythm amplitude, Acr – rhythm acrophase, T – rhythm time)


Determination of the human calculation biological rhythms


The father of idea concerning the necessity of consideration and determination of the calculation biological rhythms was Swiss businessman G. Thommen. He was the person to set up a “critical” day of a person, which repeated with certain periodicity.

The hypothesis, that starting with the birth, the human body experiences, regardless one from another, three different by their contents cycles of functional body state shifts: the physical cycle lasting 23 days, the emotional cycle lasting 28 days and the intellectual one – 33 days.

They say, that the first period of all three cycles is more beneficial and the second one is less. For instance, a person during the physical phase first period is more likely to be engaged in physical training and sports or any other activity demanding intensive physical efforts; the emotional cycle first period is characterized by the exultant mood and optimism, the first period of the intellectual phase – by the excellent background for the mental activity. Instead, the second period is characterized by the phenomena of opposite character and contents.

But the most unfavourable, even “critical”, are the days, when the curves of each cycle, which present also sinusoids, cross the ground elevation; this happens on 11.5, 14 and 16.5 days. The most critical are so-called double or threefold critical days, when the ground elevation is at the same time crossed by two or thee sinusoids. By the way, these days have been named as “black holes”. So, having information about so-called calculation biorhythms, according to supporters of this theory, we can rather accurately and exactly forecast the most unfavourable moments for future in every person’s life. To be honest, there is still no comprehensive scientific basis to this theory, but according to some observations, the frequency of various accidents and emergency situations is the most significant exactly on the days called “black holes”.

To assess the calculation biological rhythm, first we should calculate the amount of the spent days, naturally taking into account the duration of both ordinary and leap-years. Then we divide the obtained number of days in the period quantity of each calculation rhythm. The whole number obtained as a result of division characterizes the amount of total cycles by the definite calculation rhythm which have been already spent; the remainder allows determining the exact day of each of the rhythms. Marking it on the proper curve-sinusoid we can obtain the profound information concerning the main characteristics of the calculation biological rhythms.


Determine your own calculation biological (physical, emotional, intellectual) rhythms. Based on the received results draw sinusoids of these rhythms and determine their critical days and so called double and threefold critical days or “black holes”.

Method of calculation

For example, the person was born 24 of January 1983. Her age in days on 24.01.2004 is:

I.                   Calculation of spent days:

16 ordinary years × 365 days = 5 840 days

5 leap years × 365 days = 1 830 days

+ days of current January = 24 days

                                      Total = 7 694

II.                Calculation of spent cycles:

Number of physical cycles: 7 694 : 23 = 334.52 cycles

Number of emotional cycles: 7 694 : 28 = 274.78 cycles

Number of intellectual cycles: 7 694 : 33 = 233.15 cycles

III.             Calculation of days of current cycles:

Physical cycle:

1 cycle – 23 days

x =  = 11.96 days

0.52 cycle – x days


Emotional cycle:

1 cycle – 28 days

y =  = 21.28 days

0.76 cycle – y days


Intellectual cycle:

1 cycle – 33 days

z =  = 4.95 days

0.15 cycle – z days

IV.            Mark the days of current cycles on graph of calculation biorhythms.

V.               Conclusion:

Unfavourable days for:

-          emotional cycle: 5.01, 17.01, 30.01;

-          physical cycle: 12.01, 23.01;

-          intellectual cycle: 20.01.

Nowadays, besides mathematical methods of the biological rhythms calculation there is special software, which allows to calculate quickly and to represent information in graphical image. Using these programs you may calculate biorhythms either for you, or for your relatives, colleagues etc.



In psychology, temperament is the innate aspect of an individual's personality, such as introversion or extroversion.

Temperament is defined as that part of the personality which is genetically based. Along with character, and those aspects acquired through learning, the two together are said to constitute personality.

Historically the concept was part of the theory of the humours, which had corresponding temperaments. It played an important part in premodern psychology, and was important to philosophers like Immanuel Kant and Hermann Lotze.

More recently, with the emphasis on the biological basis of personality, the relationship between temperament and character has been examined with renewed interest

It has also inspired artists like Carl Nielsen, and Hindemith, whose music is featured in George Balanchine's ballet "The Four Temperaments."

History and development


Temperament theory has its roots in the ancient four humors theory of the Greek doctor Hippocrates (460-370 BC), who believed certain human behaviors were caused by body fluids (called "humors"): blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Next, Galen (131-200) developed the first typology of temperament in his dissertation De temperamentis, and searched for physiological reasons for different behaviors in humans. Nicholas Culpeper (1616-1654) was the first to disregard the idea of fluids as defining human behavior, and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), Alfred Adler (1879-1937), Erich Adickes (1866-1925), Eduard Spränger (1914), Ernst Kretschmer (1920), and Erich Fromm (1947) all theorized on the four temperaments (with different names) and greatly shaped our modern theories of temperament. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) was one of the first psychologists to analyze personality differences using a psycho-statistical method (factor analysis), and his research led him to believe that temperament is biologically based. The factors he proposed in his book Dimensions of Personality were Neuroticism (N) which was the tendency to experience negative emotions, and the second was Extraversion (E) which was the tendency to enjoy positive events, especially social ones. By pairing the two dimensions, Eysenck noted how the results were similar to the four ancient temperaments.

Eysenck's temperaments demonstrating the two axes and sub-temperaments between the four main temperaments.

  • High N, High E = Choleric

  • High N, Low E = Melancholic (also called "Melancholy"/pl. "-ies")

  • Low N, High E = Sanguine

  • Low N, Low E = Phlegmatic

Other researchers developed similar systems, many of which did not use the ancient temperament names, and several paired extroversion with a different factor, which would determine relationship/task-orientation. Examples are DiSC assessment, Social Styles, and a theory that adds a fifth temperament. One of the most popular today is the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, whose four temperaments were based largely on the Greek gods Apollo, Dionysus, Epimetheus and Prometheus, and were mapped to the 16 types of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). They were renamed (SP=Artisan, SJ=Guardian, NF=Idealist, NT=Rational). Rather than using extroversion and introversion (E/I) and task/people focus, like other theories, KTS mapped the temperaments to "Sensing" and "Intuition" (S/N, renamed "concrete" and "abstract") paired with a new category, "Cooperative" and "pragmatic" (loosely based on Judging and Perception, or J/P). When "Role-Informative" and "Role-Directive" (loosely connected with Thinking/Feeling or T/F, and corresponding to people/task-orientation), and finally E/I are factored in, you attain the 16 types. Finally, the Interaction Styles of Linda V. Berens combines Directing and Informing with E/I to form another group of "styles" which greatly resemble the ancient temperaments, and these are mapped together with the Keirsey Temperaments onto the 16 types.

The four personality types

Each of the four types of humours corresponded to a different personality type.


Sanguine indicates the personality of an individual with the temperament of blood, the season of spring (wet and hot), and the element of air. A person who is sanguine is generally optimistic, cheerful, confident, popular, and fun-loving. He or she can be daydreamy to the point of not accomplishing anything and can be impulsive, possibly acting on whims in an unpredictable fashion. Sanguines usually have a lot of energy, but have a problem finding a way to direct the energy. This also describes the manic phase of a bipolar disorder.


Choleric corresponds to the fluid of yellow bile, the season of summer (dry and hot), and the element of fire. A person who is choleric is a doer and a leader. They have a lot of ambition, energy and drive, and try to instill it in others, and can dominate people of other temperaments, especially phlegmatic types. Many great charismatic, military and political figures were cholerics. On the negative side, they are easily angered or bad tempered.

In folk medicine, a baby referred to as "colic" is one who cries frequently and seems to be constantly angry. This is an adaptation of "choleric," although no one now would attribute the condition to bile. Similarly, a person described as "bilious" is mean-spirited, suspicious, and angry. This, again, is an adaptation of the old humour theory "choleric." The disease Cholera gained its name from choler (bile).


Melancholic is the personality of an individual characterized by black bile; hence (Greek μελας, melas, "black", + χολη, kholé, "bile"); a person who was a thoughtful ponderer had a melancholic disposition. Often very kind and considerate, melancholics can be highly creative - as in poets and artists - but also can become overly obsessed on the tragedy and cruelty in the world, thus becoming depressed. It also indicates the season of autumn (dry and cold) and the element of earth. A melancholy is also often a perfectionist, being very particular about what they want and how they want it in some cases. This often results in being unsatisfied with one's own artistic or creative works, always pointing out to themselves what could and should be improved.

This temperament describes the depressed phase of a bipolar disorder.

There is no bodily fluid corresponding to black bile. However, the medulla of the adrenal glands decomposes very rapidly after death, and it is possible that this product is the mythical "black bile".


A phlegmatic person is calm and unemotional. Phlegmatic means pertaining to phlegm, corresponds to the season of winter (wet and cold), and connotes the element of water.

While phlegmatics are generally self-content and kind, their shy personality can often inhibit enthusiasm in others and make themselves lazy and resistant to change. They are very consistent, relaxed, rational, curious, and observant, making them good administrators and diplomats. Like the sanguine personality, the phlegmatic has many friends. But the phlegmatic is more reliable and compassionate; these characteristics typically make the phlegmatic a more dependable friend.


Why study temperament?

 nderstanding temperament - your own and others - makes you much better equipped to handle interpersonal relationships successfully.  Studying your own temperament helps you understand your strengths and weaknesses and why you do some of the things you do.  Understanding another's temperament can help you adapt your communication to theirs or, at the least, understand why you have problems with them.

         The four "types"

 Why four?  Why not forty?  There are more than four kinds of people, aren't there?  Of course, but everyone from the ancients to modern psychologists find that people can be grouped into four basic types of personality.  These are:




                   1.      Influencing of others, SP - Artisan - The Sanguine is receptive by nature and outgoing.  He is usually called a 'super-extrovert'. This temperament is usually thought of as a "natural salesman", but they also tend to enter professions that are outgoing, such as acting.

         He "leads into a room with his mouth" and is never at a loss for words.  His outgoing nature makes him the envy of more timid temperament types.  He is most comfortable around people and does not like being alone.  He is often known as a "toucher"; reaching out and touching the arm or shoulder of the person he is talking with.  This can make more introverted temperaments nervous and uncomfortable.


His energy can make him seem more confident than he actually is and his cheery disposition often causes others to excuse his weaknesses by saying, "That's just how he is".  The sanguine is mostly a happy person whom others are glad to have around.

         The weakness of the sanguine includes a lack of discipline which can be expressed in many ways - including a generally "messy" lifestyle or overeating.  The sanguine is the most emotional of the temperaments and can burst into tears or a rage without warning.  These "bursts" are usually over as fast as they occur, but this lack of emotional consistency can affect other areas of his life.  He may be "morally flexible" and may take advantage of others via his good nature. 

 A sanguine's tremendous personal talents can be made or broken by his lack of self-discipline.


         1.      Decisive, NT - Rational - The choleric is the most forceful and active of the four types.  He is strong-willed and independent and opinionated.  The choleric thrives on activity.  He is the most practical and makes sound, quick decisions.  He is not afraid of obstacles and tends to drive right through or over problems.  He is probably the strongest natural leader of the four types.  He has the most problem with anger and does not display compassion easily.  He is quick to recognize opportunities and quick to capitalize on them - though details irritate him and, unless he learns to delegate, he will often gloss over details.  His strong will and determination may drive him to succeed where more gifted people give up.

         The choleric is a developer and may be seen in construction supervision or coaching or law enforcement.  Most entrepreneurs are choleric.  Because of their impatience they often end up doing everything themselves.  A choleric is extremely goal/task oriented in leading others.  His biggest weakness as a leader is a tendency to run right over people if he feels they are in his way.  He assumes that approval and encouragement will lead others to slack off and he probably finds criticism and faultfinding more useful for his purposes.  Through his natural determination he may succeed where others may give up.

 A choleric's weaknesses include anger and hostility.  A choleric is the most likely to have an active temper; he is a door slammer and horn blower and he can carry a grudge for a long time.  This includes a cutting and sarcastic tongue and the choleric will rarely hesitate to tell someone off.  The choleric is the least likely to show affection or any public show of emotion.  His emotions are the least developed of all the temperaments.  Additionally, a choleric can be inconsiderate, opinionated and crafty in getting his own way.


         1.      Conscientious, SJ - Guardian - The melancholy is an introverted temperament type.  His natural style is analytical and perfectionist.  He is the most moody of types ranging from highly "up" to gloomy and depressed.  During his low periods he can be very antagonistic and does not make friends easily.  He is the most dependable of the temperaments due to his perfectionistic tendencies.  His analytical ability allows him to accurately diagnose obstacles and problems which often keep him from making changes - he prefers the status quo and may seem overly pessimistic.

         He may choose a difficult life vocation involving personal sacrifice.  Many melancholies become doctors or scientists or artists.  Their interpersonal style can be critical and negative.  He tends to be more indecisive than other types.  They have difficulty giving praise and approval because they cannot bring themselves to say something that is not 100% true.  They also are usually dissatisfied with themselves, being highly self-critical.

         Other weaknesses include being "thin skinned" or touchy and easily offended.  He often feels persecuted and may seek revenge for real or imagined insults.  He tends to be "all or nothing" in his evaluation of things; everything must be black or white and no shades of gray.  He is least likely to consider mitigating circumstances when evaluating a person or situation.  No temperament is more likely to be legalistic and rigid.  He can be intolerant and impatient with those who do not see things his way.


 1.     Steady, NF - Idealist - the phlegmatic is best characterized by the words "easy going".  He is the calm and steady person who is not easily disturbed.  He is the easiest temperament type to get along with.  Life for him is happy, unexcited and calm.  Underneath the calm exterior, the phlegmatic is the most timid temperament type.  He often uses humor to make his points.  The phlegmatic is more an observer and does not involve himself in the activities of others.

         Phlegmatics make excellent teachers, counselors and administrators.  They are very dependable and organized and, while they never volunteer, they make good group leaders.

         The weakness of a phlegmatic includes lack of motivation or even laziness; they appear to lack drive and ambition.  A phlegmatic needs to realize that he is not internally motivated and should take up activities that force him into action.  The phlegmatic is self-protective and may be selfish.  He is often very stubborn, though it is hidden beneath his mild-mannered style.  He is also the most fearful of temperaments.

         After defining each temperament in "black and white" we must realize that no one is completely one temperament type.  Each of us is a blend of usually two and occasionally 3 types.  One temperament type is dominate and one is secondary.  And don't forget that training, lifestyle, upbringing and other circumstances may have forced an individual to function "off style".  The saddest people I have seen are those who have "put on" a style that is not theirs naturally for so long that it has become a habitual way of life



Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. Every article of clothing also carries a cultural and social meaning. Human beings are the only mammals known to wear clothing, with the exception of pets clothed by their owners.

People also decorate their bodies with makeup or cosmetics, perfume, and other ornamentation; they also cut, dye, and arrange the hair of their heads, faces, and bodies (see hairstyle), and sometimes also mark their skin (by tattoos, scarifications, and piercings). All these decorations contribute to the overall effect and message of clothing, but do not constitute clothing per se.

Articles carried rather than worn (such as purses, canes, and umbrellas) are normally counted as fashion accessories rather than as clothing. Jewelry and eyeglasses are usually counted as accessories as well, even though in common speech these items are described as being worn rather than carried.

The practical function of clothing is to protect the human body from dangers in the environment: weather (strong sunlight, extreme heat or cold, and precipitation, for example), insects, noxious chemicals, weapons, and contact with abrasive substances, and other hazards. Clothing can protect against many things that might injure the naked human body. In some cases clothing protects the environment from the clothing wearer as well (example: medical scrubs).

Humans have shown extreme inventiveness in devising clothing solutions to practical problems and the distinction between clothing and other protective equipment is not always clear-cut. See, among others: air conditioned clothing, armor, diving suit, swimsuit, bee-keeper's costume, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, and protective clothing.

Clothing as social reason

Social messages sent by clothing, accessories, and decorations can involve social status, occupation, ethnic and religious affiliation, marital status and sexual availability, etc. Humans must know the code in order to recognize the message transmitted. If different groups read the same item of clothing or decoration with different meanings, the wearer may provoke unanticipated responses.

Social status

In many societies, people of high rank reserve special items of clothing or decoration for themselves as symbols of their social status. In ancient times, only Roman senators could wear garments dyed with Tyrian purple; only high-ranking Hawaiian chiefs could wear feather cloaks and palaoa or carved whale teeth. Under the Travancore kingdom of Kerala (India), lower caste women caste had to pay a tax for the right to cover their upper body. In China before the establishment of the republic, only the emperor could wear yellow. In many cases throughout history, there have been elaborate systems of sumptuary laws regulating who could wear what. In other societies (including most modern societies), no laws prohibit lower-status people wearing high status garments, but the high cost of status garments effectively limits purchase and display. In current Western society, only the rich can afford haute couture. The threat of social ostracism may also limit garment choice.


Military, police, and firefighters usually wear uniforms, as do workers in many industries. School-children often wear school uniforms, while college and university students sometimes wear academic dress. Members of religious groups may wear uniforms known as habits. Sometimes a single item of clothing or a single accessory can declare one's occupation or rank within a profession — for example, the high toque or chef's hat worn by a chief cook.

Ethnic, political, and religious affiliation

In many regions of the world, national costumes and styles in clothing and ornament declare membership in a certain village, caste, religion, etc. A Scotsman declares his clan with his tartan. A Muslim woman might wear a hijab to express her religion. A male Sikh may display his religious affiliation by wearing a turban and other traditional clothing. A French peasant woman may identify her village with her cap or coif.

Clothes can also proclaim dissent from cultural norms and mainstream beliefs, as well as personal independence. In 19th-century Europe, artists and writers lived la vie de Bohème and dressed to shock: George Sand in men's clothing, female emancipationists in bloomers, male artists in velvet waistcoats and gaudy neckcloths. Bohemians, beatniks, hippies, goths, punks and skinheads have continued the (counter-cultural) tradition in the 20th-century West. Now that haute couture plagiarises street fashion within a year or so, street fashion may have lost some of its power to shock, but it still motivates millions trying to look hip and cool.

Marital status

Hindu women, once married, wear sindoor, a red powder, in the parting of their hair; if widowed, they abandon sindoor and jewelry and wear simple white clothing. Men and women of the Western world may wear wedding rings to indicate their marital status.

Sexual availability

Clothing may signal an individual's receptiveness to sexual advances. Some garments signal lack of interest in advances; some garments and accessories indicate openness to flirtation. What constitutes modesty and allurement varies radically from culture to culture, within different contexts in the same culture, and over time as different fashions rise and fall. Often, exposure of skin and hair is an availability signal; covering skin and hair signals unavailability. However, minute adjustments of "modesty" signals can subvert the surface meaning and convey a mixed message ("I'm nice but I like to flirt too").

The vocabulary of women's clothing is usually more developed than the vocabulary of men's clothing in this regard.

Examples of sexual signaling:

  • In Amish communities, both men and women dress in plain garments that cover the body, without intricate details or patterns. Women also wear a prayer veil. Unmarried women wear black veils, married women wear white ones.

  • Many Muslim women wear a head or body covering (see hijab, burqa or bourqa, chador and abaya) that proclaims their status as respectable and modest women.

  • Streetwalking prostitutes in countries such as the United States where prostitution is illegal dress to advertise their status to potential customers, while avoiding anything that might constitute an unambiguous offer of sex for sale (which would increase their chances of being caught and convicted). They tend to wear current fashions in exaggerated form, bare a great deal of skin, and wear heavy makeup.

  • An American or European woman who wants to signal availability must sport some culturally accepted signals of flirtatious intent, but without the exaggeration that might lead others to say that she is dressing like a prostitute. In the last few decades, there has been a consistent trend towards the mainstreaming of formerly extreme fashion, in which "over-the-top" becomes ordinary and loses any shock value it might once have had.

Clothing fetishes

Because clothing and adornment have such frequent links with sexual display, humans may develop clothing fetishes. They may strongly prefer to have sexual relations with other humans wearing clothing and accessories they consider arousing or sexy. In Western cultures, such fetishes may include extremely high heels, lace, leather, or military clothing. Other cultures have different fetishes. The men of Heian Japan lusted after women with floor-sweeping hair and layers of silk robes. Fetishes vary as much as fashion. Sometimes the clothing itself becomes the object of fetish, such as the case with used girl panties in Japan.

Religious habits and special religious clothing

Religious clothing might be considered a special case of occupational clothing. Sometimes it is worn only during the performance of religious ceremonies. However, it may also be worn everyday as a marker for special religious status.

For example, Jains wear unstitched cloth pieces when performing religious ceremonies. The unstitched cloth signifies unified and complete devotion to the task at hand, with no digression.

The cleanliness of religious dresses in Eastern Religions like Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism is of paramount importance, which indicates purity.

Sport and activity

Most sports and physical activities are practised wearing special clothing, for practical, comfort or safety reasons. Common sportswear garments include shorts, T-shirts, polo shirts, tracksuits, and trainers. Specialised garments include wet suits (for swimming, diving or surfing) and salopettes (for skiing).

Clothing materials

Common clothing materials include:

Less-common clothing materials include:

Reinforcing materials such as wood, bone, plastic and metal may be used in fasteners or to stiffen garments.

Clothing maintenance

Clothing, once manufactured, suffers assault both from within and from without. The human body inside sheds skin cells and body oils, and exudes sweat, urine, and feces. From the outside, sun damage, damp, abrasion, dirt, and other indignities afflict the garment. Fleas and lice take up residence in clothing seams. Well-worn clothing, if not cleaned and refurbished, will smell, itch, look scruffy, and lose functionality (as when buttons fall off and zippers fail).

In some cases, people simply wear an item of clothing until it falls apart. Cleaning leather presents difficulties; one cannot wash bark cloth (tapa) without dissolving it. Owners may patch tears and rips, and brush off surface dirt, but old leather and bark clothing will always look old.

But most clothing consists of cloth, and most cloth can be laundered and mended (patching, darning, but compare felt).

Laundry, ironing, storage

Humans have developed many specialized methods for laundering, ranging from the earliest "pound clothes against rocks in running stream" to the latest in electronic washing machines and dry cleaning (dissolving dirt in solvents other than water).

Many kinds of clothing are designed to be ironed before they are worn to remove wrinkles. Most modern formal and semi-formal clothing is in this category (for example, dress shirts and suits). Ironed clothes are believed to look clean, fresh, and neat. However, much contemporary casual clothing is made of knit materials that do not readily wrinkle and so do not have to be ironed. Some clothing is permanent press, meaning that it has been treated with a synthetic coating (such as polytetrafluoroethylene) that suppresses wrinkles and creates a smooth appearance without ironing.

Once clothes have been laundered and possibly ironed, they are usually hung up on clothes hangers or folded, to keep them fresh until they are worn. Clothes are folded to allow them to be stored compactly, to prevent creasing, to preserve creases or to present them in a more pleasing manner, for instance when they are put on sale in stores.

Many kinds of clothes are folded before they are put in suitcases as preparation for travel. Other clothes, such as suits, may be hung up in special garment bags, or rolled rather than folded. Many people use their clothing as packing material around fragile items that might otherwise break in transit.

A Neanderthal clothed in fur

A Neanderthal clothed in fur

Clothing historians trace the development of dress by studying various sources, including magazines and catalogs, paintings and photographs, and hats, shoes, and other surviving items. Reliable evidence about everyday clothing from the past can be hard to obtain because most publications and images concern the fashions of the wealthy. Furthermore, clothing that has survived from the past tends not to be typical of what was worn in daily life. Museum collections are full of fashionable ball gowns, for example, but have very few everyday dresses worn by ordinary working-class women. Even fewer examples of ordinary men's clothing have been saved. Images, such as paintings, prints, and photographs, do provide considerable evidence of the history of everyday clothing. These sources indicate that although everyday clothing does not usually change as rapidly as fashionable dress, it does change constantly.


The most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, while in cold climates its thermal insulation properties are generally more important. Shelter usually reduces the functional need for clothing. For example,coats, hats, gloves, and other superficial layers are normally removed when entering a warm home, particularly if one is residing or sleeping there. Similarly, clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of clothing are generally worn in warmer seasons and regions than in colder ones.

Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual, occupational and sexual differentiation, and social status.[6] In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status. Clothing may also function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style.

Clothing can and has in history been made from a very wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs, to woven materials, to elaborate and exotic natural and synthetic fabrics. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing. Articles carried rather than worn (such as purses), worn on a single part of the body and easily removed (scarves), worn purely for adornment (jewelry), or those that serve a function other than protection (eyeglasses), are normally considered accessories rather than clothing, as are footwear and hats.

Clothing protects against many things that might injure the uncovered human body. Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, snow, wind, and other weather, as well as from the sun. However, clothing that is too sheer, thin, small, tight, etc., offers less protection. Clothes also reduce risk during activities such as work or sport. Some clothing protects from specific environmental hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather, weapons, and contact with abrasive substances. Conversely, clothing may protect the environment from the clothing wearer, as with doctors wearing medical scrubs.

Humans have shown extreme inventiveness in devising clothing solutions to environmental hazards. Examples include: space suits, air conditioned clothing,armor, diving suits, swimsuits, bee-keeper gear, motorcycle leathers, high-visibility clothing, and other pieces of protective clothing. Meanwhile, the distinction between clothing and protective equipment is not always clear-cut—since clothes designed to be fashionable often have protective value and clothes designed for function often consider fashion in their design. Wearing clothes also has social implications. They cover parts of the body that social norms require to be covered, act as a form of adornment, and serve other social purposes.

Clothing Choices Many factors influence the clothing that people wear, including climate, available materials, culture, religion, gender, and lifestyle. In this illustration, the man on the left is a hunter living in a hot climate. The loincloth that he wears is practical for his needs. The burnoose (a loose, hooded robe) worn by the man in the second drawing is practical for the climate of the Middle East. Loose-fitting and white, it helps the wearer stay cool and protects the body against sun, wind, and sand. The woman in the red outfit lives in a cold, northern country, where multiple layers provide the best protection against the elements. The man on the right wears a standard Western business suit, a garment that works well in a variety of climates and is generally worn by urban office workers.

         Since prehistoric times, people in almost all societies have worn some kind of clothing. Many theories have been advanced as to why humans began to wear clothing. One of the earliest hypotheses is the so-called modesty/shame theory, also known as the fig leaf theory. This theory is based on the biblical story of creation. In the book of Genesis, Adam and Eve, the first human beings, realize they are naked after they eat an apple from the tree of knowledge. Ashamed of their nakedness, they make clothing for themselves out of fig leaves. As late as the 19th century, most Europeans and Americans believed that people wore clothing primarily for reasons of modesty. With the rise of a nonreligious worldview, however, people began to offer other theories. Some argued that the origin of clothing was functional—to protect the body from the environment. Others argued that some clothing was designed for sexual attraction—to display the body's beauty.

Evidence that early clothing was indeed functional came from a 1991 discovery of a 5,000-year-old male body, frozen on top of a glacier near the Austrian-Italian border. It was clothed in a fur cap, a crudely tanned leather cape, a loincloth (strip of cloth wrapped around the waist and between the legs), leggings, and leather shoes. A grass cloak covered the fur and leather clothing. These clothes would have provided protection against the cold and rain. The Iceman, as he is called, also had tattoos, which may have been marks of decoration or tribal identity, or were perhaps intended to provide magical protection.

Decoration seems to satisfy a fundamental human need. Other animals groom themselves, but only human beings have ornamented themselves. Although in some societies people have worn little or no clothing, so far as we know, people have decorated their bodies in some way in all societies throughout history. Archaeological and anthropological evidence suggest that early people may have decorated their bodies with paint, tattoos, and other types of ornamentation even before they began wearing clothing made of fur or fabric. Body decoration, like clothing, has served a variety of social and symbolic purposes.

Woman in U.S. Army Uniform Clothing can be an indicator of a person’s role or position in society. Uniforms, such as the army fatigues worn by the woman in this photograph, frequently indicate a person’s profession. Professional uniforms also include those worn by nurses and doctors, by members of religious orders, and by police officers and firefighters.

Modern scholars believe that clothing provides a mark of identity and a means of nonverbal communication. In traditional societies, clothing functions almost as a language that can indicate a person's age, gender, marital status, place of origin, religion, social status, or occupation. In modern industrialized societies, clothing is not so rigidly regulated and people have more freedom to choose which messages they wish to convey. Nevertheless, clothing can still provide considerable information about the wearer, including individual personality, economic standing, even the nature of events attended by the wearer. When a woman who usually wears blue jeans puts on a frilly, flowered dress, she may be stating that she wants to look more traditionally feminine. A person wearing a T-shirt emblazoned with the name of a rock band is probably a fan of that music group and may have attended one of the group’s concerts.

A society’s economic structure and its culture, or traditions and way of life, also influence the clothing that its people wear. In many societies, religious laws regulated personal behavior and permitted only members of an elite class to wear certain prestigious items of clothing. Even in modern democracies, clothing may represent social standing. Clothing with a designer label tends to be relatively expensive, so it may function as an outward sign of a person's economic standing. Clothing most obviously defines a social role in the case of uniforms, such as those worn by police officers and nurses, and garments worn by clergy or members of religious orders. Clothing metaphors—blue-collar and white-collar workers, for example—are used to distinguish between types of work (factory or office, in this example).

Clothing also derives meaning from the environment in which it is worn. In most cultures brides and grooms as well as wedding guests wear special clothes to celebrate the occasion of a marriage. The clothing worn for rituals such as weddings, graduations, and funerals tends to be formal and governed by unwritten rules that members of the society agree upon. Clothing may also signal participation in leisure activities. Certain types of recreation, especially active sports, may require specialized clothing. For example, football, soccer, and hockey players wear matching jerseys and pants designed to accommodate such accessories as protective pads.

Most modern societies comprise different social groups, and each group has its own beliefs and behaviors. As a result, different clothing subcultures exist. Within a single high school, for example, teenagers known as jocks are likely to wear different styles of clothing than teens called nerds. This difference can indicate to which group a teen belongs.


Fur Clothing The earliest clothing was made from animal skins and fur, as far back as 30,000 years ago. While fur and leather are still used to make some things, most articles of clothing are now made out of other fabrics.

The development of new materials for use as covering or ornament has played a major role in the history of clothing. In early prehistoric times, the range of materials for clothing was small. Until about 10,000 years ago, people used animal skins for clothing. Single skins were worn as capes thrown around the shoulders; two skins fastened together at the shoulder made a simple garment. Fitted clothes, such as trousers or a parka (an outer garment with a hood), were also made from animal skins. Simple needles made out of animal bone, found in many sites in Europe and Asia, provide evidence of sewn leather and fur garments from at least 30,000 years ago. However, only with the development of textile technology did greater variety become possible.


Fiber, fine hairlike structure, of animal, vegetable, mineral, or synthetic origin. Commercially available fibers have diameters ranging from less than 0.004 mm (0.00015 in) to 0.2 mm (0.008 in) and they come in several different forms: short fibers (known as staple, or chopped), continuous single fibers (monofilament), untwisted bundles of continuous filaments (tow), and twisted bundles of continuous filaments (yarn). Fibers are classified according to their origin, chemical structure, or both. They can be braided into ropes and cordage, made into felts (also called nonwovens), woven or knitted into textile fabrics, or, in the case of high-strength fibers, used as reinforcements in composites—that is, products made of two or more different materials .

Types of fibre

Textile materials are made in three stages:

1.     Spinning fibres into yarns

2.     Weaving or knitting yarns to make fabrics

3.     Finishing fabrics to make them more useful

Image shows 5 stages. 1. A picture of a sheep, silkworm, oil drum (source of fibre); 2. This is spun into a roll of yarn; 3. This is woven or knitted into raw fabric; 4. The finish is applied; 5. This made into finished product.

Where fibres come from
Natural fibres come from plants and animals: cotton from the cotton plant, linen from the flax plant, wool from sheep, silk from silkworms.
Synthetic fibres are manufactured using plant materials and minerals: viscose comes from pine trees or petrochemicals, while acrylic, nylon and polyester come from oil and coal.
There are two types of textile fibres: natural fibres and synthetic or man-made fibres.

Synthetic fibres are continuous filament fibres, while natural fibres are usually short staple fibres. The exception to this rule is silk - a natural fibre whose continuous filaments are up to one kilometre in length!

Natural fibres

1. Natural fibres from plants:                                                                   

  • Cotton is used for making jeans, t-shirts and towels. It is cool to wear, has a soft handle, a good drape, and is durable. It can be washed and ironed, but it creases easily, is very absorbent and dries slowly.

  • Linen is used for summer clothing, tea towels and tablecloths. It is fresh and cool to wear, has a stiffer handle, and a good drape. It is durable, but can be washed and ironed. It creases badly and is very absorbent, but is also fast drying.

2. Natural fibres from animals:

  • Wool is used for jumpers, suits and blankets. It is warm to wear, absorbent, dries slowly, is breathable, repels rain and can be soft or coarse to handle. It does not have good drape, and is not durable; however, creases tend to drop out. If it is not dry-cleaned it may shrink.

  • Silk is used for evening wear and ties. It is warm to wear, absorbent, has a soft handle and a good lustre and drape. It is durable and creases drop out. It needs to be dry cleaned.

The graphic summarises the properties and end-uses of natural fibres.

Graphical table summarises properties and end-uses of natural fibres given above.


All animal fibers are complex proteins. They are resistant to most organic acids and to certain powerful mineral acids such as sulfuric acid (H2SO 4). However, protein fibers are damaged by mild alkalies (basic substances) and may be dissolved by strong alkalies such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH). They can also be damaged by chlorine-based bleaches, and undiluted liquid hypochloride bleach will dissolve wool or silk.

The principal component of silk is the protein fibroin. Silk is exuded in continuous filaments from the abdomens of various insects and spiders. It is the only natural filament that commonly reaches a length of more than 1000 m (more than 3300 ft). The only silk used in commercial textiles is produced from the cocoons of the silkworm. Several silk filaments can be gathered to produce textile yarn. However, silk is often produced and used in staple form to manufacture spun yarns.

The principal component of hair, wool, and fur is the protein keratin. Individual hairs may be as long as 91 cm (36 in) but are usually no more than 41 cm (16 in). Thus, fibers of hair and wool are not continuous and must be spun into yarn if they are to be woven or knitted into textile fabrics, or they must be made into felt. Any hair fiber can legally be marketed as wool or bear the common English name of the animal from which it was gathered—for example, camel's hair.

The principal hair fiber used to produce textile fabrics is sheep's wool. In wild sheep, the wool is a short, soft underlayer protected by longer, coarser hair. In domesticated sheep bred for their fleece, the wool is much longer. Yarns made of wool are classified as either woolen or worsted. Wool fibers less than 5 cm (less than 2 in) in length are made into fuzzy, soft woolen yarns. Longer fibers are used for the smoother and firmer worsted yarns. Naturally crimped wool fibers produce air-trapping yarns that are used for insulating materials.

Other animals used as sources of hair fibers for textiles include camels, llamas, alpacas, guanacos, vicuñas, rabbits, reindeer, Angora goats, and Kashmīr (or cashmere) goats. Fur fibers from animals such as mink and beavers are sometimes blended with other hairs to spin luxury yarns but are most often found as fur pelts. Horsehair and cow's hair are used for felts and are sometimes spun as yarn, particularly for upholstery and other applications for which durability is important. Even human hair has been spun into yarn and used for textiles.


Vegetable fibers are predominantly cellulose, which, unlike the protein of animal fibers, resists alkalies. Vegetable fibers resist most organic acids but are destroyed by strong mineral acids. Improper use of most bleaches can also weaken or destroy these fibers.

There are four major types of vegetable fibers: seed fibers, which are the soft hairs that surround the seeds of certain plants; bast fibers, the tough fibers that grow between the bark and stem of many dicotyledonous plants; vascular fibers, the tough fibers found in the leaves and stems of monocotyledons and grass-stem fibers. Other fiber types, of limited utility, include strips of leaf skins, such as raffia; the fiber of fruit cases, such as coir; and palm fibers.

Only two seed fibers, cotton and kapok, have commercial importance. Cotton fiber, which grows in the seed pod of cotton plants, is the only one that is useful for the manufacture of textiles. Different species of cotton plants produce fibers of different lengths. Long-staple fibers are spun into fine, strong yarns, which are then woven into better-quality fabrics. Short-staple fibers produce coarser yarns for durable fabrics. Cotton yarns can be dyed and printed easily, so that they are useful for producing woven fabrics with a multitude of colors and designs. Kapok cannot be spun but is used as upholstery stuffing. Because it is hollow, kapok is buoyant. It was once used in flotation devices such as life preservers, but it has largely been replaced by other materials.

A wide variety of bast fibers are used in applications ranging from fine woven textiles to cordage. Linen cloth is made from flax. Coarser clothes and rope are produced from hemp, jute, ramie, and sunn.

Vascular fibers are used almost exclusively for making cordage. They include agave (sisal), henequen, manila hemp, and yucca. The vascular fibers of pineapple have been used in the production of textiles. Entire stems of some grasses and straws, such as esparto, are woven as fibers for hats and matting.

The papermaking industry also uses vegetable fibers extensively. Cotton and flax form the basis for fine rag papers. Grasses, hemp, jute, and manila are often used in wrapping papers and other coarse papers. Newsprint and kraft papers are produced from wood fiber after appropriate chemical treatment. Wood fiber and bagasse (the fiber of sugarcane) are made into building board by a process analogous to papermaking.


Glass, which is made from silica sand, is the only inorganic (mineral) fiber widely used in commercial applications. There are two main forms of glass fibers: continuous and staple. Continuous glass fiber, which is made by drawing molten glass into threads, is used in textile materials. The use of air, steam, or gas to disrupt the flow of the molten glass stream produces staple fibers. These fibers can be fabricated into mats or into bulk-molding and sheet-molding compounds with the use of resins, or organic binders. Quartz mineral is high-silica, high-purity glass that is good for long-term use at temperatures as high as 1400° C (2552° F).

Since the early 1960s, ceramic fibers such as aluminum oxide, (also called alumina [Al203]), silicon carbide (SiC), and boron carbide (B 4C) have been developed mainly for use in heat-resistant composite materials. Many components of helicopters, military aircraft, civil aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft, including satellites and space shuttles, are made from these high-strength, lightweight composites.

Fibers of asbestos, formerly used for insulation and fireproofing, were found to be carcinogenic and are no longer used. Thin metal wires are used for the production of gauze. Aluminum fibers coated with plastics possess a bright glitter and are used in decorative yarns.


Synthetic fibers derived from natural cellulose were first developed at the end of the 19th century and became known as rayons. In a typical rayon-making process, natural cellulose made from wood pulp is treated with chemicals to form a thick liquid. This liquid is then extruded as filaments into a weak acid bath that converts the filaments back into pure cellulose. Rayons are not, therefore, completely synthetic but are actually regenerated fibers. Acetates and triacetates, which are true synthetic fibers, were developed shortly after rayon. They are derived from cellulose acetate in a process similar to that used for making rayon.

Most synthetic fibers are now derived from organic polymers, materials consisting of large organic molecules. Most of them are thermoplastic—that is, they are softened by heat. The first commercially successful organic synthetic fiber, nylon (polyamide), dates from 1938. Since then many other fibers, including acrylic (polyacrylonitrile), aramid (aromatic polyamide), olefins (polyethylene and polypropylene), polyester, and spandex (polyurethane), have been developed. In a typical fiber-spinning process, a molten polymer or polymer solution is extruded through tiny holes in a spinneret into an environment that causes the filaments to solidify. The fiber's properties depend on the base polymer, the spinning process, and the post-spinning treatment of the fiber, which can include drawing, annealing, applying a finish, and coating. Fiber properties such as weight, abrasion resistance, heat resistance, chemical resistance, moisture resistance, strength, stiffness, elasticity, and ease of dyeing and coloring can be optimized by such treatments.

Carbon and graphite  fibers are high-strength materials that are used as reinforcing agents in composites. Carbon fibers are produced by using heat to chemically change rayon or acrylic fibers. Carbonization occurs at temperatures of 1000° C to 2500° C (1832° to 4532° F) in an inert atmosphere. Carbon fibers are converted to graphite at temperatures above 2500° C. Carbon and graphite fibers can also be made from pitch, a residual petroleum product. Products that use carbon fibers include heat-shielding materials, aircraft fuselages and wings, spacecraft structures, and sports equipment. High-strength fibers such as aramid and polyethylene are also used in armor applications such as bullet-resistant garments, car doors, and crew seats for military helicopters and aircraft.

Synthetic fibres

The main synthetic fibres are:

  • Viscose is used for shirts, dresses and linings. It has a soft handle, a good drape and can be washed and ironed. However it has low warmth, and is absorbent and slow-drying. Viscose is not durable and creases easily.

  • Acrylic is used for jumpers, fleece jackets and blankets. It is warm to wear, non-absorbent, and fast-drying, with a soft handle like wool, and a good drape. It is easy to care for, durable and crease-resistant.

  • Polyester is used for raincoats, fleece jackets, children's nightwear, medical textiles and working clothes. It has a soft handle, a good drape, is very durable, crease-resistant, easy-care, non-absorbent, and fast drying. It can be recycled, but has low warmth.

  • Nylon (Tactel) is used for active sportswear, fleece jackets, socks and seat belts. It has a soft handle, a good drape, is non-absorbent, fast drying, very durable, crease-resistant and easy-care. However it has low warmth.

The graphic summarises the properties and end-uses of synthetic fibres.

Graphical table summarises the properties and end-uses of synthetic fibres given above.


Nylon, term applied to a synthetic resin widely used for textile fibers, characterized by great strength, toughness, and elasticity, and processed also in the form of bristles and molded articles. Nylon was developed in the 1930s by scientists of Eleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours, headed by the American chemist Wallace Hume Carothers. It is usually made by polymerizing adipic acid and hexamethylenediamine, an amine derivative. Adipic acid is derived from phenol; hexamethylenediamine is made by treating adipic acid catalytically with ammonia and hydrogenating the product Hydrogenation. Nylon is insoluble in water and in ordinary organic solvents; it dissolves in phenol, cresol, and formic acid, and melts at 263° C (505° F).

In making textile fibers, small chips of the nylon polymer, which is obtained as a tough, ivorylike material, are melted and forced through holes in a metal disk called a spinneret. The filaments are congealed by a blast of air and are then drawn to about four times their original lengths. The diameter of the filaments is controlled by changing the rate at which the molten nylon is pumped into the spinneret and the rate at which the filaments are drawn away. Filaments much finer than those of ordinary textile fibers can be made from nylon. Nylon fibers can have the appearance and luster of silk or can be made to resemble natural fibers such as cotton; their tensile strength is higher than that of wool, silk, rayon, or cotton. Dyes are applied either to the molten mass of nylon or to the yarn or finished fabric. Acetate rayon dyes are usually used for nylon.

Nylons made from other acids and amines resemble, in general, the nylon described above.

Nylon is used in the manufacture of fabrics for such articles as hosiery, night garments, underwear, blouses, shirts, and raincoats. Nylon fabrics are water-resistant; they dry quickly when laundered and usually require little to no ironing. Nylon fibers are also used for parachutes, insect screening, medical sutures, strings for tennis rackets, brush bristles, rope, and fishing nets and line. Molded nylon is used for insulating material, combs, dishware, and machinery parts.

Clothing, coverings and garments intended to be worn on the human body. The words cloth and clothing are related, the first meaning fabric or textile, and the second meaning fabrics used to cover the body. The earliest garments were made of leather and other nonfabrics, rather than of cloth, but these nonfabric garments are included in the category of clothing.

Hygienic demands for fabrics and clothing

The main clothing purpose is esthetics and protection from cold: wind, rain, heat, mechanical injuries, different irradiations, chemical factors etc. The main clothing function is to maintain the microclimate under the clothing in optimal for body heat balance parameters.

Therefore, the fabrics should have the following basic hygienic qualities: low (for winter clothing) and high (for summer clothing) heat conductivity, porosity, lightness, low hygroscopic property, water-retaining property, water permeability, high steam conductivity and evaporability, and also durability, wearability, low absorbing properties in relation to the chemical compounds, anti-electrostatic properties etc.

These qualities depend on the fiber origin (cotton, flax, hemp, wool, silk, synthetic fabrics), the fabrics’ thickness, their shrinkage and compression while soaking, washing, on the impregnation while wearing by dust, sebum, technical oils, calcium and magnesium salts while washing with a soap in hard water etc.

The fabrics quality also depends on their chemical origin and solubility of dyes used for coloration (with arsenic, stibium, lead, aniline, picric acid, ursol and coralin content) in water and fats (sebum).

Bacteria, fungi, parasites and their eggs (pathogens of tuberculosis, diphtheria, anthrax, streptococci, pneumococci, peritoneo-typhus and lice nits) can be accumulated and keep their virulence in clothing fabrics during its wearing.

Hygienic demands for shoes

Shoes have to protect feet from unfavourable environmental conditions: cold, mechanical injuries, dirt; by design they should correspond to all physiological and anatomical foot’s structure peculiarities and size, support the amortization, spring foot functions; they should be convenient, lightweight, of good air and vapour permeability, water-resistant; they should correspond to labour conditions, way of life, climate, year season. Shoes should be durable, hard-wearing, and resistant to deformations contributing to plateaupodia development.

Neglecting these demands can lead to the blood and lymph circulation, and musculoskeletal system functioning disorders, also to corns and rub sores. Low air and vapour permeability of the shoes material contributes to the feet sweat and inflammatory processes development.

To manufacture the shoes first of all leather should be used, which owing to its pores provides necessary ventilation, sweat evaporation and owing to its fatness it is water resistant, soft, and elastic. Also, fur, wool fabrics for winter and for summer season – cotton and silk ones may be used. To manufacture the sole now more often porous or dense rubber, polyurethane are implemented. Rubber or other water resistant material (kersey, artificial leather) is used for the outer covering of the working shoes which are for the works on the exposed soil (at the agriculture, building etc.).

Wearing shoes with synthetic polymer materials which are widely used today, can lead to the increased feet hyperhidrosis and fungal lesions development (epidermophytosis), to the accumulation of the static electricity significant levels (up to 500 – 2000 V/cm), to the chemical substances educed from the polymer materials effect on skin: there can be dermatitises, allergies. Thus, the insufficiency and relative expensiveness of leather, the esthetic look and relative cheapness of polymer materials contribute to their widespread usage at the shoes’ industry.


Methods of examination of the clothing’s fabrics hygienic indices

I. The fabric physical properties examination

1.1.         The fabric thickness determination

The fabric thickness determination is carried out by means of micrometer. They take two cardboard disks of 3 cm in diameter, determine their thickness by putting them in between two pressure bars of micrometer, then using only “cracker” press the disks till the first “cracker” clicking (not to allow the excess pressure) and read the registration from the micrometer scale. The micrometer scale consists of two parts: the internal at the device base (from 0 to 25 mm) consisting also of two parts: the lower – 1 mm, the upper – 0.5 mm and the external – on the micrometer barrel, where the reading from the tenth and hundredth fractions of millimeter takes place (from 0 to 50). The device reading is carried out by the next algorithm: on the internal scale they read the amount of millimeters from the lower scale and if near the barrel edge there is a line of the upper scale, they add 0.5 mm, then add tenth and hundredth fractions of millimeters from the scale on the barrel. For example, the lower part of the scale demonstrates 8 mm and a line of the upper scale, the barrel – 35, so the result will be: 8 + 0.5 + 0.35 = 8.85 mm.

As soon as the disks thickness has been measured, the fabric sample is put in between them; the fabric sample thickness is measured together with disks in the same way. To determine the fabric thickness it is necessary to subtract the disks thickness from the disks with fabric thickness.


1.2.         The fabric specific weight (density) determination

Density is a fabric mass of 1 cm2 (grams). They cut a piece of fabric 1×1 cm on natural thickness. Then taking the mass of the fabric 1 cm2 they calculate its mass on the sample thickness of 1 cm.

The calculation is carried out by the next formula (1):


where: D – the fabric specific weight (density);

  Po – the mass of the weighed sample 1 cm2, g;

            S – the area of the weighed sample, cm2;

            m – the fabric thickness, mm.


1.3.         The fabric porosity determination

         It is calculated by the next formula (2):


where: P – the fabric porosity, %;

           D – the fabric specific weight (density);

           d – the density of the fabric fibre (conditionally is taken as 1.3 regardless of fibre origin).


1.4.         The fabric capillarity determination

The cut fabric piece of 25 cm in length and 2.5 cm in width is attached by one end to the support paw, the second end is placed into a cup with eosion solution (1:1000). The capillarity degree is determined by the eosion solution increase height from the initial liquid position in cm per 30 min.


1.5.          The dry and wet fabric relative heat conductivity determination

First, in the laboratory by means of catathermometer they determine the air cooling ability. The device is warmed in a glass of water (temperature is 80°C) up to the filling of the device upper reservoir by one third. Then the catathermometer is wiped dry and the time in seconds of the device cooling from 38°C to 35°C is noted. The air cooling capacity quantity is calculated by the next formula (3):



Ho – is a an unknown quantity of air cooling ability in cal/cm2 ∙sec;


F – the device factor (constant quantity indicated on the device);


T – the time of catathermometer cooling from 38°C to 35°C, in sec.

While the fabric heat conductivity examination they determine:

T1 – the time of catathermometer cooling from 38°C to 35°C of a dry study fabric;

T2 – the time of catathermometer cooling from 38°C to 35°C of a wet study fabric.

The device is warmed once more, wiped dry and the study fabric cover is put on the catathermometer reservoir; then the cooling quantity (H1) is measured again using the same formula. The difference in quantity of air cooling capacity (Ho) and cooling capacity in the study fabric cover (H1) is found out. Then the cooling quantity of wet fabric is found out and it is compared to the dry one (%).


II. The fabric origin examination

2.1. Boiling with alkali

While boiling with alkali (NaOH or KOH 10 % solution) the fabric fibers of animal origin (silk, wool) are dissolved, of vegetable origin (cotton, flax) – only expand. The reaction is carried out in the test-tube, into which 2-3 ml of NaOH or KOH solution is pored, then the study fabric sample is placed there. It is boiled on the spirit brazing during 1-2 min.


2.2. The xanthoproteic reaction

Nitric acid (HNO3) of 1.2-1.3 specific mass dyes the fabrics of animal origin (wool, natural silk) into yellow or light-brown colour; it doesn’t change the colour of vegetable origin fabric. To carry out the xanthoproteic reaction it’s necessary to drop 1-2 drops of HNO3 onto the study fabric and wait for the result during 5-10 min.


2.3. The treatment by acetone

The acetone dissolves the synthetic silk and doesn’t influence the natural fibres. Some acetone drops are dropped onto the fabric sample placed in the Petri dish; then the place is several times wiped by a cotton wool.


Hygienic demands concerning different types of fabrics



Fabrics types



Synthetic fabric

Hygroscopic property

7 %



Capillary raise

110 mm/hour

100 mm/hour

95 mm/hour

Heat conductivity coefficient

0.035 kcal/m2∙degree

0.033 kcal/m2∙degree

0.035 kcal/m2∙degree

Moisture absorption

150-300 g/m2

330-770 g/m2

100-110 g/m2

Fibers specific weight

1.52 g/cm2

1.32 g/cm2

1.58 g/cm2


Hygienic demands concerning different types of clothing



Dresses, shirts, blouses



winter clothing



winter clothing



winter clothing





winter clothing



Thickness, mm





≥ 100

≤ 1.5


is calculated

Air permeability, dm3/m2, sec


≥ 100


≥ 330 -370

≥ 100


≥ 100

depends on the wind

Humidity permeability, g/m2


≥ 56



≥ 40

≥ 40

≥ 50

≥ 40

≥ 50

Hygroscopic property at relative humidity of 65 %,  %

≥ 7

≥ 7




≥ 7

≤ 13

7 and above





1.          Hygiene and human ecology. Manual for the students of higher medical institutions/ Under the general editorship of V.G. Bardov. – K., 2009. – PP. 14-34, 71-106.

2.          Datsenko I.I., Gabovich R.D .Preventive medicine. - K.: Health, 2004, pp. 14-74.

3.          Lecture on hygiene.


1.          Kozak D.V., Sopel O.N., Lototska O.V. General Hygiene and Ecology. – Ternopil: TSMU, 2008. – 248 p.

2.          Dacenko I.I., Denisuk O.B., Doloshickiy S.L. General hygiene: Manual for practical studies. -Lviv: Svit, 2001. - P. 6-23.

3.          A hand book of Preventive and Social Medicine. – Yash Pal Bedi / Sixteenth Edition, 2003 –  p. 26-36, 92-97.