Medical electronic information resources. Internet. Familiarity with the work of «Medline».
Internet (written with a capital letter, from the English. Internet, literally - "firewalls") - worldwide system of computer networks combined, based on the use of IP and routing of data packets. Internet creates a global information space serves as a basis for physical access to the websites of many systems (protocols) data. Often referred to as a "global network" or "global network".
Today in the use of the word "Internet" often means just web and information available through it, not the physical network, resulting in a variety of legal conflicts and legal consequences. In English, if the word «internet» written with a lowercase letter, it simply means combining networks (born interconnected networks) via routing of data packets. In this case refers to the global information space. In our technical literature also sometimes make such distribution concepts.
Publication - 1) to the public through the press, radio, television or Internet, 2) the inclusion in editions of the work, and 3) the text printed in any publication. Publications serve several functions:
1) publish the results of scientific research;
2) promote the priority of the author (date of signing of the publication to print - a priority date of the scientist, in the historiography of the dissertation and abstract must indicate when he first turned to the development of scientific problems);
3) indicate the investigator's personal contribution to the development of scientific problems (especially important with individual publications, works in collaboration require additional clarification, the text of the dissertation and abstract applicant shall submit a link to their own publications to include them in the list of sources used);
4) serve to verify the accuracy of the main results and conclusions of the thesis, novelty and scientific level it (since after the release of the publication becomes the object of study and evaluation of a broad scientific community);
5) confirm the fact of testing and implementation of results and conclusions of the thesis;
6) reflect the essence of the thesis (as indicated in the introduction to the dissertation and abstract, as well as the inclusion of publications applicant to the list of published works on the thesis);
7) the novelty and high level of scientific papers, which published the results of the thesis, is one of the main evaluation criteria of the research;
8) completion of a fixed phase of the study or work in general;
9) provide the primary scientific information society, notify the scientific community about the emergence of new scientific knowledge;
10) convey the individual result in the public domain and so on.
Of particular importance are scientific publications that were published in the form of publications.
ISO 3017-95 defines publication as a document that was editing and publishing study made printing, embossing or otherwise, contains information intended for dissemination, and meets state standards and other regulations on publishing design and printing performance.
Science is publishing the results of theoretical and / or experimental studies, as well as trained scientists for publication of cultural artifacts, historical documents and historical texts. It is designed for professionals and research.
Among the scientific publications distinguish two groups:
The first group of scientific publications include:
monograph - research and book publication of a full research problem or topic that belongs to one or more authors;
abstract thesis - scientific publication as a brochure essay author of the study, which is given for the degree;
preprint - scientific publications with preliminary materials, which are published in the publication of the edition in which they must be contained;
Abstracts and Materials Conference - Collection aperiodic up the conference, reports, results and decisions;
Scientific Papers - Proceedings of the studies carried out in research institutions, universities and scientific societies.
The second group of sources of
scientific publications are publications, documentary or scientific
publication containing monuments and historical documents that were textological processing, with notes, introductory articles,
support boards and other elements of scientific publications Help system. In
terms of isolated two types of non-periodical publications of scientific: Book
(book publishing with over 48 pages) and pamphlet (book edition volume of 4 to
48 pages). Status of scientific publication requires strict adherence to
publishing design publication. To specify a key.
Masthead - a set of data describing the issue and intended for its design,
bibliographic processing, statistical records and inform the reader. The
elements of the initial information is: information about the authors or others
who participated in the creation of publication, title (name) edition; nadzaholovni data; pidzaholovni
data, numbers, output, storage code edition, code UDC, BBK index, author mark,
design annotated a catalog card, a sign of protection of copyright,
international standard number ISBN; final data. Baseline data include: location
registration publication name, publisher or organization that owns the right of
publication, and year (in the bottom of the cover sheet). In the final data
indicate the date of the original in preparation; date of the publication to
print, paper size and proportion worksheet, type and number of the paper, the
font of the text, printing, publication volume in conventional printing sheets
that are given to the format of the paper sheet 60 ×
The main objectives of the National Scientific and Technical Information.
The main objectives of the national scientific and technical information are:
- formation on the basis of domestic and foreign sources of reference and information collection, including bases and data banks and information for businesses and individuals;
- receiving, processing, storage, distribution and use of information obtained during the research, experimental design, engineering and technology, industrial and public activities of legal entities and individuals;
- organization proceeds to
- preparation of analytical materials required to make public bodies, local and regional self-government solutions for scientific, technical, economic and social development;
- analytical and synthetic treatment of primary sources, abstracting publications and unpublished sources in Ukraine scientific-technical and economic information, creation on this basis and distribution of information products and services;
- development and implementation of modern technologies in scientific and information activities;
- Organization promoting and facilitating the widespread use of science and technology, advanced manufacturing experience;
- a network of public libraries, information centers for public use as a base for education, production and research of the rights of citizens to cultural and professional development.
Information Resources of the National Scientific and Technical Information
1. Information resources of the national system of scientific and technical information of a set of reference and information collection with the necessary reference and search tools and appropriate methods of storage, processing and transmission, which is in the ownership, possession, use of public services and scientific and technical information, research and libraries, commercial centers, enterprises, institutions and organizations.
2. Information resources of scientific and technical information that is publicly owned, public resources are recognized scientific and technical information. Their distribution among the various governmental bodies, agencies, institutions and procedures of exchange can be regulated at the national and departmental solutions via authorized by the structure.
4. Use in a resource of scientific and technical information of works of literature, art and science may be subject to copyright. This provision also applies to software computer technology and automated information systems.
History of the Internet In 1969, the U.S.
Department of Defense launched a development project, which aimed to create a
reliable system of data transmission in case of war. U.S. Agency for Advanced Studies (English ARPA) of the proposed design
for a computer network. Its development was entrusted to the
In 1984, has developed a system
of domain names (English Domain Name System, DNS). Then in the ARPANET appeared
serious contender - U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) established
inter-university network NSFNet (English National
Science Foundation Network), which was formed from smaller networks, including
known at the time Usenet and Bitnet and had a much higher bandwidth than ARPANET. This
network includes year about 10,000 computers, the title "Internet"
began to slowly move to NSFNet. In 1988, it
was invented Protocol Internet Relay Chat (IRC), through which the Internet was
made possible real-time communication (chat). In
1. At the application level:
o XMPP (Jabber)
2. At the session level:
3. At the transport layer
4. At the network level
5. At the data link layer
o Frame relay
In addition there are a number of non-standardized yet, but already quite popular protocols. Typically, this decentralized file sharing protocols and text messaging, some of them built entire file-sharing networks. These protocols such as:
Currently the most popular services of the Internet are:
Wikis (including Wikipedia)
E-mail and mailing lists
Newsgroups (basically, Usenet)
Electronic Payment Systems
The modern Internet is also a lot of social and cultural facets. It is a universal medium for communication, entertainment and education. The Internet has become possible to make purchases and pay for services. For many people the Internet - a way of earning. On the whole Internet - a reflection of modern society and worldview. Internet Society The Internet offers opportunities for communication, it is easy to find people with similar interests, hobbies and outlook. In addition, the network psychologically easier to communicate, rather than in person. These reasons lead to the creation and development of active online communities - groups of people with common interests who communicate primarily through the Internet. These companies are gradually playing an increasingly important role in all modern societies. Internet Addiction With the growing popularity of the Internet have become manifest and negative aspects of its application. In particular, some people are so fond of virtual space that holds the computer 18 hours a day. This dependence of many compare to smoking or drug addiction. Definition of Internet addiction is: "It is the desire to get online while off-line, and the inability to get out of the Internet, while on-line». According to various studies, today internet is dependent on about 10% of users worldwide. Experts have developed a technique to get rid of this addiction. Online dating Dating online is usually associated with entertainment or finding a man abroad. Both areas often become a kind of addiction. It is very rare to find a dating service that performs exceptionally serious relation for marriage, including dating for Christians, or, in general, people with traditional views on marriage. Trolling Trolling - a psychological and social phenomenon that originated on the Internet during the 1990s. Internet trolls or trolls called the World Wide Web of people specially published provocative articles or posts (forums, newsgroups Usenet ), whose purpose - to cause conflicts between the parties, Flame, images and more. This article or message also sometimes called trolls, and the process of writing - trolling. Today, any popular resource (forum, newsgroup ) is faced with this phenomenon.
Internet, cyberspace and virtual reality found its mark in contemporary art. In the mid-1980s formed a special genre of science fiction that focuses on computers, hi-tech and problems that arise in society due to the use of the fruits of technological progress. Plot works of this genre is often a struggle hackers from powerful corporations. Genre gained wide popularity in literature, film, graphic works (especially anime) and in computer entertainments. The term coined cyberpunk writer Bruce Bethke, who in 1983 published the same story.
Censorship on the Internet
In some countries, there are serious limitations on the network: at the national level is blocked access to certain websites (English web-sites).
Despite the presence of link to
Since 3 December 2006 User Iran was denied access to a number of websites, including Wikipedia, YouTube, IMDb. Considered. this is due to deploy in the country to campaign against corrupting influence of Western culture. Ukrainian segment of the Internet
History of domestic Internet
begins in autumn 1990 when George Yankivskoho sector
of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Software Technologies Center
"Tehnosoft" (director Igor Velbytskyy) connected to the global Internet network,
becoming the first Ukrainian party Demos / KIAE (network RELCOM). For practical
unavailability of automatic telephone connection in the country, when to send a
regular fax took nearly four hours, the ability to not only send emails to the
global network in 30 minutes (UUCP), but also to participate in open world
forums USENET, was valid information breakthrough for engineers Tehnosoft first, but soon and for many other Internet
pioneers from Ukraine. Conquered the idea of Internet engineers Tehnosoft launched the first Ukrainian unit RELCOM, and
spring 1991 began to connect subscribers
Wayback Machine is an archive consisting of copies of Web pages, which are taken from Alexa Internet. This archive allows users to see versions of web pages in the form in which they were at different times. Archive Wayback Machine is made available gradually. The time interval from the moment of copying and archiving of web pages at the time when it becomes available at the Wayback Machine can be up to six to twelve months. Alternatively, users who want to archive material and his immediate quote can benefit Archive-it.org. As of 2006 Wayback Machine contained nearly two petabytes of data, increasing to 20 terabytes each month. Multimedia resources To use multimedia technologies to develop learning resources in a multimedia environment, or they are called multimedia resources. Define the following groups of multimedia resources:
§ for preschool and junior pupils;
§ general resources at various levels;
§ Resources Special Education.
Each group developed a multimedia resource script, which includes the following components:
1. The list of components and resource issues.
2. Description of the structure of the resource.
3. Description animated pieces.
4. Description of video sequences.
5. Description of the illustration.
6. Description of the relationship between thematic sections.
7. Hypertext links.
The script is written based on the selected software features available starting materials (video, different pictures, sounds, etc.). Develop training scenario involves specific tasks that allow to form a sequence of video page. Moreover, each has a specific combination of video and media elements. In the construction phase scenario developed sketches of illustrations and animated fragments selected sources for video and sound design. In addition to online archives, the Internet Archive maintains an extensive collection of digital media resources that are either public domain or distributed under Creative Commons License or equivalent license that allows free use and distribution. Internet portal (from the English. Portal «the main entrance, Gate") (or portal information portal) - a site that provides the user with various interactive Internet services (Internet services) that work within a single site. Portals also function as the access point to information on the Internet or sites that help users in finding relevant information through the Internet. These portals provide information from different sources or subjects combined method and also called navigation sites. All portals perform search functions, as well as providing Internet services, such as email, news and more. The idea of the portal - the creation or presentation of the critical (maximum) supply of Internet services, which could be to attract as many users, visitors, who will be constantly extended and increased.
Intensive development of portals contributes to a number of software products (portal solutions), allowing to combine into a single space information from various sources. These decisions involve, inter alia, to:
technology SSO (Single Sign On), when the user moves from one section to another portal without re-authorization;
organization of data between different applications involved the user during work with us, and so on.
Classification of specialization information
Horizontal Portal (General portal)
Horizontal portal (or a
universal portal, portal general) - is a portal that covers many topics,
presents a set of services (catering, if possible, all themes) and is aimed at
the widest possible audience to maximize the coverage of its interests. The
most famous horizontal portals (by sector Internet) - Yahoo! (English), Yandex, Mail.ru (both - in
Russian), Ukr.net (Ukrainian).
These portals typically combines multiple functions, offer diverse content (content) and various services (news, finance, entertainment, gaming, etc.). Vertical portal (Vertical portal), portal-niche (Niche portal) Vertical portal - a web of narrow thematic focus that provides various services for network users to specific interests and focuses on complete coverage of the subject or field of activity. If vertical portal theme is quite interesting, it might get around the so-called "community» (community) - more or less permanent group of people, for example, regularly communicate with each other in a chat portal. Mixed Portal (Blended portal) Mixed portal - a portal that combines the functions of e-commerce and the classical reference services. Examples of such portals are online shopping. Also mixed portals are those vertical portals, which are beginning to do business in their specialized sections.
Classification focus on users Public Portal
Corporate Portal (Corporate portal,
The use of the term
Terminology inexperienced users and producers obvious appeal site content positioning their online projects like portals lead to the erosion of the concept. Portals often "call themselves" a great site with an extensive internal structure and lots of links. However, if most of these references - internal (those that send the user to another page on the same site), we call such a site online portal of unnecessarily. Engine - the online service that allows you to search for information sites on the Internet, and (possibly) in discussion groups and ftp-servers. Indexation in search engine sites by bots. The main criteria for the quality of the search engine is the relevance, completeness basis, taking into account the morphology of the language. Popular search engines English-language and international
A 9 (owned by Amazon and is working on the mechanism of Google)
AskJeeves (mechanism Teoma)
Yahoo! and search engines owned by this company:
Specialized Search Engines
Search for files
Search for scientific information
Search for educational information
Russian search engines
Dynamic web page (English dynamic Web page) - Web page content that may change. In the original version there was hypertext navigation between "static" documents. However, over time the sites were added interactivity, and these became known as dynamic pages. Filling (content) of this web page may be replaced depending on certain conditions and / or actions. There are two ways to create dynamic pages:
1. Use scripts that are executed in a user's
browser (born client-side scripting) to change page content based on user
behaviour. To change not need a
full page reload. Using programs
running on the server (born server-side scripting) to change the content of the
page is transmitted user's browser. Information may vary depending on the data
sent in HTML form parameters in the URL, browser type, date, or time of day and
other conditions. The result of the use of any technique can be
described as a dynamic web page. Pages built the first option is usually used scripting language used for Dynamic HTML (DHTML) -
sound and graphic effects can be applied technology Flash. Since 2005 began to gain popularity technology
PubMed - is an electronic retrieval system, developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM).
• MEDLINE (Medline)
• publishing descriptions of NLM.
Detailed description of MEDLINE in English can be found in the
fact sheet at NLM: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/medline.html.
To help Russian-speaking audience that wants to learn how to search the
medical literature are already PubMed, a group of
Russian librarians working in medical libraries in the
It becomes a reality
television with a combination of computer, telecommunication equipment (digital
TV, PC-TV, teleputer), a
system of interactive television'''' (interactive TV, interactive broadcasting,
two way television). This system gives viewers the opportunity to order TV,
videos (pay-per-view, video-on demand), buying various products from home.
Along with the introduction of "tsyfernoho"
and interactive television receives, for example, the spread of the phrase
set-top box to indicate an electronic decoder - a device that allows viewers to
decode and take the "interactive" computer-TV (translate signals into
digital code, "clear" for
conventional TV). Recently, it is not just about'''' interactive television and
interactive media for'''' (interactive multimedia), the connection with
computers other media. This combination will
mark the owners of such media diversified range of services. The
introduction of computers and other information technology has made dramatic
changes in education. It is a computerized
education (computer-aided education), which creates conditions for home
schooling children (cyberschool, teleschooling),
to obtain higher education, higher the degree of'' a'' (distance learning). It
is believed that the introduction of computers in school education,'' button or
Revolution'' (keyboard revolution), in the near future will make classes''
paperless'' (paperless classroom). More and more
universities are equipped by means of computer and telecommunications equipment
and becomes a "virtual universities" (virtual university),
"multimedia Universities" (multimedia university). In early
2000, more than 650
- The ability to send text messages of great length;
- The speed of communication at any point of the globe;
- No need of having the caller on the other end of the line; - The ability to store electronic copies of the message to the subscriber computer and its subsequent automated processing;
- To transmit messages to multiple subscribers;
- Highly reliable message transmission;
Electronic mail supports a large number of software tools. The most common programs in libraries are Netscape Communicator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. The last part of Windows.
Teleconferences. Teleconferences (foreign term: Conference эhy, forums, roundtables) are designed to get the latest news, discover new people with the same interests, share ideas and opinions, get the necessary consultation. In the INTERNET many networks give users access to the forums. To participate in the conference, users have to "subscribe" to the relevant conference is to send a message to the server that conference. The mode of subscription depends on the nature obtain user information from conference to all the articles of the conference, obtaining items on the user's choice. Prepared messages and other information the server sends the user conference, usually working around the clock.
In the INTERNET organized conferences on
virtually all substantive areas of human activity, including bibliographical
- Departmental (eg teleconference University Libraries on actual directions of their activities);
- Interdepartmental (eg
conference of the Ministry of Culture and Arts of Ukraine, providing
regulations and documents of the largest libraries of
- Inner (eg forum STL NTU "KPI" inland actual problems).
If the first two levels for
Servers WWW. The system server WWW (or Web-servers) provides users with a wealth of information, from the decrees and decisions of governments of different countries to weather conditions in the regions of the globe. Virtually no domains, knowledge of which would not be reflected in the system of WWW.
WWW - a source of information for librarians of various kinds: official legislative materials, thematic information, information about companies, libraries and other partners, obtained through their home pages. To use the WWW requires special software (browsers). Libraries used by browsers: MS Internet, Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator. The service is the INTERNET users to:
- Browse directories with other computer programs;
- Copy the files to your PC with text and graphics documents in different programs.
- Send your files to other computers.
Information retrieval systems in the INTERNET. THE INTERNET possess a huge amount of diverse information. This information is constantly updated and increased in volume. Find the user the necessary data to help numerous information retrieval systems (IRS). With ICS you can get an answer as to narrow in thematic terms, a specific request and do a search of any general order.
Challenges and Opportunities
The problem of
archiving information resources global networks today partially solve
the search engines and directories of Internet resources. They deal with
ordering and meta-information about network resources and, in some cases, store
key fragments publications. An example of such a system can act as Google,
information database which includes data on more than 8 billion documents. This
system has a service that provides target detection for Scientific Information
(Google Scholar). Resource on scientific information resources has also
specialized Internet search engine. This system is more than 200 million
indexed articles from scientific journals, Web pages, research institutions and
universities and so on. Reflected in
these systems and closed (paid) information resources and materials that are to
be published. Google Scholar in addition to
bibliographic information is also citation index publications on the Internet.
However, the task of archiving full-text publications of existing Internet
search engines is not solved. This function is characterized libraries for
centuries have engaged in processing and dissemination of documented knowledge.
Today, they have to expand the cumulative function, expanding it
challenges archiving of Internet resources, information value is not subject to
time. The organization works to create an
archive is crucial to determine the information resources that are subject to
archiving. The founders of the National Library insisted that it "must be
the most complete manner designed department"
To achieve this goal, under conditions of limited logistical and human resources and the availability of advanced telecommunications networks to archiving should involve all interested institutions - domestic subjects of documentary research communications (leading branch and regional libraries, information centers, research and academic institutions, etc. ). To the opinion that the basic conceptual foundations of building an integrated system archiving scientific information resources in Ukraine should choose a combination of the principles of decentralized collection and initial processing of brunch fragments and regional information networks with centralized formation consolidated reference and search tools to support the multifaceted use of information resources distributed archive. According to this principle operates several international integrated information systems, which are characterized by the following features:
- The presence of several independent subsystems, so when the central system stops functioning links belonging to it, continue to work, but is less effective;
- General purpose subsystems, based on which to create an integrated system.
A typical example of such a
system can be created U.S. National Library of Medicine system analysis and
retrieval of biomedical literature MEDLARS, which is based on machine training
publications performs medical information service workers. MEDLARS
is one of the largest automated national and international industry
information retrieval systems. Directly
- "Read, listen or view privately, in the library or in remote access available in the free trade material the use of which is protected by copyright;
- Meet in view of the public copyright-protected;
- For private use or for educational purposes, alone or with the help of librarians to copy a reasonable electronic documents are protected by copyright. "
It should be emphasized that the legal basis of archival research and information resources of the Ukrainian segment of global computer networks, in a first approximation, we can consider the above-mentioned Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on the development of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine. Ability to attract foreign resources to archive now available licenses Creative Commons, whose development was started in 2002 the same organization led by law professor Lawrence Lessig Stanford University (Lawrence Lessig). For design Creative Commons is a license designer, where each author the opportunity to choose the option that it satisfies. The main selection criteria are:
- Need to identify the author of the work;
- The possibility of commercial (non-commercial) use;
- To create derivative works;
- The need for distributing derivative works under the same license under which the original was published.
Worldwide Information Resources Creative Commons License may be represented in three forms: as a page with icons and short explaining inscriptions (Commons Deed), in a legal text (Legal Code) and in the form of machine-readable metadata (Digital Code). Usually resource area coverage refers to Commons Deed, which allows any user to quickly familiarize yourself with the basic terms of material use. Links from Commons Deed is the law license text. Creative Commons readable metadata typically represented as a description that can be placed directly into an object which is protected by license. Presentation of Creative Commons licenses in the form of structured metadata schemas relates them to a wider class of legal metadata (rights metadata) and provides for automated processing of this information. Some methods for automatic data processing implemented today. In a test commissioned a search engine (http://search.creativecommons.org/), which allows you to refine searches using the materials. Decisive importance for the spread of Creative Commons licenses can provide metadata using Creative Commons-level institutional repositories (institutional repositories), supported by libraries, archival institutions, research and training centers in the formation of their electronic records. The question of the use of Creative Commons licenses for the needs of the scientific community investigated within the mentioned project RoMEO, which the authors concluded that the feasibility of using these licenses to describe the conditions of access to research materials. An important positive factor in this case is broad prevalence Creative Commons existence and services developed for the "untrained" users. In general license Creative Commons - is a tool developed and used. It is not a denial of copyright and its transformation into the form where copyright does not prevent the free flow of information. Noting that Creative Commons is an important step in solving the problem of copyright in an electronic environment must be at the same time emphasize the need for further development of this problem. Assessing positive License Creative Commons, it should be noted the extent of their lack in the Ukrainian segment of global computer networks. Patriotic libraries that are present today due to the Internet, you should organize their propaganda and start installation of the relevant licenses in the pages of their websites.
In view of this, the following
conclusions on the main conceptual positions that should form the basis of archival
research and information resources in
1. The components of the National Archives of network research and information resources should be:
- Scientific and socially important documents of the Ukrainian segment of global information networks;
- Foreign scientific resources
in priority areas of innovation activity in
- Publications in Ukrainian and Ukrainian and Ukrainian institutions in the global information networks.
2. The technology is shaping the national archives of scientific information resources is advisable to use a combination of corporate training its thematic elements together top information from a centralized state institutions forming an integrated reference and search tools that should be implemented under the scheme, which involves a combination of detailed metadata about collections of electronic publications Full-text indexing of arrays available information.
3. As part of the
National Archives should provide a centralized repository of data on the
formation of the desk space of an electronic
4. The legal basis
for the archiving of scientific information resources of the Ukrainian segment
of global computer networks can be considered the Cabinet of Ministers of
Ukraine on the development of the National Library of Ukraine by Vernadsky. When archiving foreign resources today should focus on the license
Connecting regional libraries to
the Internet simultaneously with the completion of a full cycle automation of
bibliographic processes showed the formation of a new era in their activities.
It was realized concept of universal access to information at the national and
global world level. Task libraries and library professionals in this period
were clearly articulated in materials IFLA (International Federation of Library
Associations and Institutions) in the beginning of twenty-first century.). Multimedia
Technology (MMT) have transformed the Internet and made it much more than a
network, in fact - a global communication space where information is
transmitted, it seems, is processed by various means that are available to read
in any form, and also in the process of its creation and use. Environment poses new regional public library in
addition to mastering the challenges MMT certain tasks from an organizational
restructuring of its operations. Therefore, in recent years attracted
considerable attention MMT library professionals, because they are by far the
most advanced uses of information and computer technologies in the field of
librarianship. Multimedia is a new information technology that is a set
of techniques, methods and ways of production, processing, storage and
transmission of audio-visual information based on the use of compact discs (CD
- ROM). This allows to combine in a single
software product text, graphics, audio - video, animations, 3D - graphics. And computers equipped with multimedia can play
multiple types of information of different nature, affecting the prospects and
shape modern learning. An important feature is also a multimedia
interactivity, allowing the user to get feedback. MMT is the most essential feature hypertechnology that allows to combine in a single system different units of information
of any kind based on multidimensional associative relationships of Nature.
Environment MMT can be described in terms of: Multimedia processes, multimedia
systems, multimedia applications, multimedia services, multimedia resources,
multimedia user, multimedia environment. Means of multimedia
technologies are divided into two classes based on interaction and through the
use of multimedia technologies themselves. The
first class should include means of synchronous communication (video
conferencing), asynchronous interaction, on-line mode (webinars, e-learning materials). The second class includes
a variety of virtual objects, real movies, animated graphics and more. To
create and implement multimedia computer technology needed, appropriate
application software (multimedia authoring) and design tools multimedia
projects on the big screen - multimedia projectors. Multimedia
projector connected to a computer that provides dynamic image, different
colours of objects and sound image. With their
help, you can project images from a computer, VCR, TV on the big screen with a
diagonal of more than 10 multimedia projectors characterized by high quality
and intense light output. Their advantages - portability and mobility: the mass
of some of them less than
Copyright multimedia - is
application software (applications), which has pre-defined elements to develop
multimedia applications. Their use is
a form of accelerated development of a multimedia project several times reduces
the cost of the work. These tools differ in
specialization, capability and ease of development. The most common in
First, the environment is created with a clear presentation of information in colour (psychologists proved that storing colour photography almost 2-fold higher compared to black and white);
Secondly, the use of animation is one of the effective means of attracting attention and stimulating emotional perception of information (together with the dynamic image replacement statistical sense only when the nature of the object, as demonstrated associated with the process dynamics, the ratio which can not transmit statistics);
Third, a visual representation of information in the form of photographs, video sequences simulated process has a strong emotional effect on people than traditional because it improves understanding and memory and physical processes (events) that are displayed on the screen.
Traditionally, in the course of events in the regional library use presentations - slide set presented in a specific order. The presentation shown on a large screen using a multimedia projector and illustrates the story librarian. As the content presentation can be used in different types of media (text, audio, graphics, animation, videos, etc.). As guidelines for the use of presentations at public events in the walls of the library can use the algorithm, following which the librarian can successfully prepare for the event:
- Identify the topic, purpose and type of event;
- Make temporal structure of the event, in accordance with the main objective to identify the problem and the steps needed to achieve them;
- Think through the steps of the necessary tools multimedia;
- Reserves of computer software selected the most effective means;
- Examined the feasibility of their use as compared to traditional methods;
- Selected materials are evaluated at the time: their duration should not exceed health standards, recommended to view and take into account the interactive nature of the material;
- Creates a temporal scan event;
- The shortage of computer illustrations or program material is searched in the library, internet or is authoring program;
- From found materials is presentation software;
- Testing activities.
You can also recommend planning a massive event with the use of multimedia, the following criteria guided the selection of information:
- Meaning, depth and volume of information must comply with cognitive capabilities that category of people who will be invited to a mass event, consider their intellectual training and their age;
- Presentation slides should contain only the main points (basic definitions, diagrams, animations and video pieces that reflect the essence of the phenomena that will be presented at the event);
- The selection of material for visual description of a number of models to avoid long distance plans and small parts;
- Strictly to avoid large text items. Unacceptable use to read text band or scroll buttons move from screen to screen;
- Highlight text in the most important moments using bold or italics;
- The total number of slides should not exceed 20-25 (more slides, shall be construed listeners);
- Do not overload slides various special effects, or the audience's attention will be focused on them and not on information content slide;
- The level of perception of the material is greatly influenced by the slide of colours, so you need to choose the correct colour presentation to slide well "was read";
- To clearly calculate the time to display a particular slide that was presented in addition to events, rather than vice versa.
Thus, multimedia library, you can:
- Improve information event;
- To stimulate the motivation of library users to search for more in-depth information on the subject of the event;
- To increase visibility event by structural redundancy;
- Make repeat most difficult moments (trivial redundancy);
- Implement the accessibility and the perception of information due to the parallel presentation of information in different modalities: visual and auditory (permanent redundancy);
- Organize your audience's attention in a phase of biological reduction (25-30 min after the start of the event and the final moments of the event) due to aesthetic and artistic fulfilment slideshow screensavers or by appropriate applied animation and sound effect.
In a meeting readers associations also advisable to use multimedia tools, but there are some peculiarities. The presentation can demonstrate how to use the projector, and (during training in the training centre) on the screen. At such meetings should be used as a presentation of the event. In this case, the presentation can manage and librarian, and an active reader. The basic scheme of multimedia mastering tool during meetings lies in the fact that the first subordinate their action logic defined by these means, then - aims and objectives of the activity, receiving new possibilities achievement of this activity. The first stage media tool or resource is the object of activity, during which the acquired knowledge of the work product, study the language and methods of interacting with them, acquired skills. In the second stage, this multimedia resource is converted into means of resolving any professional problems. Recently, much attention is paid to creation and improvement of e-books, manuals, textbooks in various fields of knowledge. The important point here is the use of multimedia to enhance the visibility of information to an extent that does not go over using conventional "paper" books, textbooks. E-Books and manuals used with great success in various events organized by the library. For example, in the department of documents in foreign languages widely used Rosetta Stone. Rosetta Stone - one of the best in the world on software for learning foreign languages. This program has been used successfully by millions of people in 150 countries. Based on the Rosetta Stone language learning in a way similar to what child is learning their first language. That encourages the formation of associative rows between words, objects and situations rather than learning words with the letter A, B or C, as is customary in most broadcast programs. Dynamic immersion language environment helps to think of language, learning, quickly develops the language skills and memory structures with which to communicate. Experience with e-books and textbooks, software and electronic simulators shows that their effectiveness depends primarily on the presence of user feedback. Promising avenue of using technology in the multimedia library is showcasing an animated three-dimensional object models. Three-dimensional animation will play back the dynamic phenomena that are hidden from observation. The main difficulty in implementing this direction occur due to the need for very sophisticated software and usually significant time cost to create one animated movie. Demonstration video is one of the components of multimedia technology. Availability of special programs - video editor allows quickly mount film of captured fragments, apply sound to the visuals and add necessary comments - subtitles. The most significant in making the film is to have a quality script, and as a result, the logical sequence of presentation of the material, which is limited in time. Three-dimensional animation clips can be used as a regional library as part of a multimedia presentation, and beyond.
There are some kinds of abstraction:
- Identification - the formation of concepts by combining items related to relations of type equality in a special class (diversion of certain personal property items);
- isolation - a selection of properties and relations, is closely related subjects, and indicate their specific names;
- Constructive - distraction from the uncertainty of the boundaries of real objects (stop continuous movement, etc.);
- Actual infinity - distraction from incomplete (and completion) of the process of formation of an infinite set, it is impossible to define its full list of all items (such a set is considered as existing);
- The potential feasibility - a distraction from the real limits of human possibilities, limited life expectancy caused by time and space (infinity acts are potentially feasible).
The process of abstraction in the system of logical thinking is closely related to other research methods, especially with the analysis and synthesis.
Analysis - a method of knowledge that allows object-divide into parts to its detailed study. Synthesis, in contrast, is a consequence of the connection of separate parts or features of an object together.
Analysis and Synthesis of interconnected, they constitute a unity of opposites. Depending on the level of knowledge of the object and the depth of penetration in its essence apply analysis and synthesis of various kinds.
Direct, or empirical, analysis and synthesis are used at the stage floor acquaintance with the object. This is the allocation of parts of the object, revealing its properties, carried out simple measurements, fixation of direct data that lie on the surface. This type of analysis and synthesis makes it possible to know the phenomenon, but to penetrate into its essence it is insufficient. Reverse, or theoretical, analysis and synthesis are widely used to study the nature of the phenomenon. Here, operations analysis and synthesis based on some theoretical considerations, that is, assumptions and causal relations of different phenomena. Deepest to penetrate the essence of the object allows structural and genetic analysis and synthesis. This in depth study of cause-effect relationships. This type of analysis and synthesis requires selection in a complex phenomenon such elements of such circuits, which are the central, most importantly, that the decisive influence on all other parties to object.
Induction and deduction. Real science is possible only on the basis of abstract thinking, sequential reasoning researcher as judgments and conclusions. In scientific judgments are established links between objects or phenomena, or between their specific characteristics. Path to the judgment through direct perception of objects or phenomena and their relationships. The scientific conclusions of one judge changed the others, based on existing findings are made new. There are two main types of conclusions: inductive (induction) and deduction (deduction). Induction is the inference from private to general, from particular facts to generalizations when based on knowledge of objects of class concludes class as a whole. As a research method of induction - the process of research studying the phenomena in which a transition from individual facts to general provisions. Deduction - is this reasoning, which concludes some element of the set is based on knowledge of the general properties of the whole set. Deductive in the broadest sense is any output at all, in more specific and the most common sense-proof or withdrawal of approval (effect) on one or more other claims (links) based on the laws of logic, with dos tovirnyy character. In the case of deductive conclusion consequence contained in links hidden, so they must be obtained from them by applying the methods of logical analysis. Content deduction as a method of knowledge is the application of general scientific concepts in the study of specific phenomena. An important prerequisite for deduction in the practice of knowledge is a summary of specific tasks and the general shift from problem solving in general terms to some of its variants. Modeling - indirect, indirect method of scientific research objects of knowledge (direct study of which is impossible, difficult or inappropriate), based on the use of models as a means of research. The essence of modeling is the substitution of an object to others, specially created for this purpose. Under the model to understand the material sold or imaginary system, which, displaying or playing the object of research is able to replace it so that she becomes a source of information about the object of knowledge. Models can be physical, mathematical, natural, quite adequate to the phenomenon, process.
Among the methods of theoretical research we should be called historical, logical, systematic, cognitive, modeling, and others. system analysis methods that involve the study of complex objects, complex systems. It is widely used for computer analysis and solution of complex mathematical problems regarding process optimization and management of vehicle and large enterprises.
The methods of theoretical investigation should also include:
- The method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete;
- The method of idealization;
- Method of formalization;
- Axiomatic method.
The ascent from the abstract to the concrete - is a form of scientific knowledge. According to this method of thinking originates from specific to abstract, in fact, in thinking of him and - in particular in thinking.
The method of idealization - Myslene design objects that are not actually or practically unfeasible. The purpose of idealization: to deprive the real objects of some inherent properties and give (mentally), these objects are some unrealistic and hypothetical properties. This goal is achieved through:
- Transition of thought to the final event of any property;
- A simple abstraction.
Formalization - the method of study of various objects by displaying their structure in the sign form by means of artificial languages, such as the language of mathematics. The benefits of formalization:
- It provides a generalized approach to solving problems;
- Symbols and provides a short definition fixed values;
- Unambiguous symbols (avoid polysemy of ordinary language);
- Lets you create symbolic models of objects and replace the study of real things and processes of learning models.
Due to its specificity, formalization provides a generalized approach to cognitive problems. In addition, the symbolism of artificial language provides clarity and brevity fixation values formalized objects of knowledge, provides unambiguous understanding of their structure (as opposed to ambiguity in the application of natural language).
The formalization is usually associated with the use of mathematical tools. As a method, formalization, reduces the study of real substantial party objects, properties and relations to the formal study of the corresponding characters (abstract objects) are widely used in mathematical modeling in many fields.
Thus, the basic uses of multimedia technology in the library. How was marked above, the use of multimedia technology can significantly improve the efficiency of library and bibliographic work. However, along with the obvious benefits of such technologies, there are problems using them:
- To create and use multimedia material necessary to know the librarian of the personal computer and the skills to work with special software;
- The creation of multimedia products - a process that requires significant time and cost of knowledge from various disciplines;
- Abuse of special effects and excessive amounts of information that are multimedia, can distract the process of the event;
- The level of user interactivity with multimedia program is still very far from the level of communication between people and in any case can not replace live communication librarian with the user;
- Required mapping between hardware and multimedia applications, as the latter have a high resource volume;
- Anyway, some implementation problems of multimedia technology can be successfully resolved, for example, the involvement of experts in the field of multimedia technology and training librarians in special courses and seminars.
In general, the media is
extremely desirable in bibliographic services technology through its inherent
quality of interactivity, flexibility and integration of various types of
multimedia information, and by the possibility to take into account the
individual characteristics of users and enhance their motivation to seek new information
for them. Multimedia in the regional library is a promising and highly
effective tool that allows arrays to provide information in greater volume than
traditional sources of information in the order that corresponds to the logic
Thus, the use of multimedia technology in the selection process, accumulation, systematization and transfer library users the right information and the organization of library and bibliographic services is one of the significant features of the library sector, emerging now. Online education (English Online tutoring) - Education, carried out using the resources and technologies of the Internet. With regard to the concept of distance education is a species difference, more strictly regulate technical and technological specificity study - use of the Internet (remotely possible to study not only the Internet but also through local networks, video, etc.) Most of the existing training centres can be divided into three groups according to the degree of "immersion" in the Internet. The first group includes establishments, all of whose work is based solely on Internet technologies. Choice of course, its fees, classes with students, transfer of control tasks and test, as well as submission of interim and final examinations are carried out through the network. Similar training centres, sometimes referred to as "virtual universities", not so much because of high demands to the hardware and software equipment and level of training, and need significant initial financial investment. Second, the largest group, are institutions that combine various forms of traditional full-time and distance education with innovations in the spirit of the time. For example, some universities of their program courses transferred in virtual form, and centres of learning, based on Internet technology, at the same time do not give up the practice of eye examinations. The options here may be many, but in each case only a part of a computerized learning process. The third group includes learning centres for which the Internet serves as a communicative medium. On their site they post information about training programs (plans), workshops, and library catalogues. Featured in systems of virtual learning courses can be divided into two types: credit and non-credit. "Credit" is a course approved from an accredited institution. He enrolled student in the curriculum of any specialty, and is one of the steps towards a degree. (Each course in the credit hierarchy has its own weight.) The "non-credit" includes courses designed for more or post university education (e.g. for training) and do not lead to a degree. Educational institutions offering non-credit courses, in fact, constitute a system of "open education". They emphasize the value of the curriculum itself, without worrying about the prestige emitted diploma or weight of credit. As part of the Open Education created thousands of courses on various topics, including the development of languages and improving computer skills. On the Internet you can find are those schools that offer training to pass on the full program of the college, but did not provide an educational loan. Most teachers need to use Internet resources for updating and visualization of factual information about the country and the world. In addition, the Internet contributes to teacher training, allowing to observe the theoretical foundations of the new subjects and methods of teaching in schools in our country and in the world. To effectively use these opportunities to master technology teacher should work with diverse global network. Hence the need to introduce the faculties of pedagogical universities depth study of science. Today online education for subject teachers usually absent. The reasons for the slow development of the Internet by teachers is not so much technical as social. Even in schools that are connected to the Internet, the teacher often can not work online because they do not know how, or access depends on the teacher's computer or the school administration. In faculties of pedagogical universities online education is not set to the proper level. Low wages can not buy a computer teacher and master information technologies and Internet resources independently. None of the social and financial motivation to use the Internet in school education. Opportunities and Internet resources that may be used subject teachers in their work of teaching students basic theoretical knowledge include:
- WWW (World Wide Web);
- E-mail (electronic mail);
Servers World Wide Web may be useful:
- Teacher to find additional and updated information for lessons in preparation;
- Students to search for information in the preparation of various kinds of creative works (papers, abstracts, business games, educational conferences, etc.);
- In the course of the WWW and the teacher and student are faced with the challenge of finding relevant information. In doing so, they can help specific search engines. But in our time in the post-Soviet sector WWW still very few sites that specialize in school education.
Email may be used:
- Teachers to share educational information with their colleagues, Methodists, leading scientists from different regions of the country;
- Teaching students to share creative works with their peers from other schools, regions or countries;
- Teachers and students to share information during the realization of learning and implementing telecommunications projects.
Teleconferences can be useful:
- Teachers in the discussion in the on-line the most pressing issues of content and methods of teaching geography, and other important and interesting problems;
- With the participation of students in various educational and cognitive telecommunication projects.
Addressing the low level of online education we see in uniting the efforts of all its subjects, including:
- Subject teachers should seek independent mastery of skills on the Internet (to have a personal email address to participate in teleconferences, competitions, distance contests, networking projects, virtual teaching unions and other forms of exchange of experience and learning resources international web);
- The administration of schools and education authorities to expand the material opportunities and incentives for teachers to use the Internet to improve the quality of education;
- Training Institute to organize full-time-distance courses for Internet users subject teachers with a focus on the development of information resources worldwide network with professionals from different departments;
- Pedagogical University to make arrangements with staffing faculties and departments including computer classes and online education into the curriculum to the completion of higher education young teachers possess a web-based and focused on information resources of the specialty.
Concept and features of the educational Internet resource Traditionally in the Internet of "Educational Resources Online" is interpreted very broadly. For example, the All-Russia competition of network of educational resources "Education in RuNet" (http://konkurs.auditorium.ru), which is held under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Institute "Open Society" (Soros Foundation) and name accepted sites containing materials:
Institutions and organizations that implement education programs for children, youth and young people, providing guidance and information support of the education system and provide scientific-technical and innovation policy in education;
In the humanities, social, economic, exact and natural sciences as well as for teachers and pupils from the school curriculum;
Distance learning and testing, scientific and educational contests and online contests;
Digital libraries, catalogues, collections for the purposes of education and educational media;
Personal Sites of employees in education. Presented in this list all resources created by professional designers with varying levels of technical and financial support. Along with the site created by enthusiasts, the works performed by professional design studios. On the one hand, the Internet resource - a resource of global computer networks, therefore, is able to transmit digitally represented information over long distances through network equipment. Unfortunately, the speed of data transmission has physical limitations that entails restrictions on the amount of transferred files. Designers who create multimedia curriculum on CD, first set about creating websites, horrified by the number of constraints. After all, if the volume of a standard CD is from 600 to 750 Mb, for example, that allows you to record images on it are larger than 1 Mb, the volume of a single image on the site only in special cases can exceed 50 Kb However, the infrastructure of the Internet provides features such as:
1. Reach the widest possible audience (not only Russian but also international).
2. Operational update.
3. Using direct links to other Internet resources.
4. Widespread information about the existence of a resource using information retrieval systems on the Internet.
It should also be emphasized that, speaking of educational resources on the Internet, refers to websites (or rather, a set of hypertext documents), good structure which can significantly improve the performance of information. Therefore:
1. Creating a network of educational resources require special technical and conceptual approach. The method of creation is fundamentally different from the technology of other educational resources.
2. Any information taken from another type of resource to be appropriately transformed for inclusion in educational information resource on the Internet.
Educational online portals
Connecting schools to the
Internet raises a number of issues that need immediate resolution. These
include training and retraining of teachers to professional activities with the
use of telecommunications to ensure quality of education information resources
published on the Internet, and to inform teachers and students about how to
access these resources. In this direction has already been done. The current
system of teacher training in the field of education informatization
established educational portals, developed and
published online electronic educational resources from almost all school
subjects. Educational portals created by the Internet, have an increasing
impact on the efficient use of ICT in teaching students. The lack of a
systematic approach to the allocation of information resources on the Internet,
and the lack of uniformity in dealing with psychological and pedagogical,
technological, aesthetic, ergonomic and a number of other problems in the
development and use of educational information resources leads to practical
failure to telecommunications to improve the quality of the educational process
general secondary education. Partial solution to this problem can be achieved
through the development and implementation of comprehensive educational
information portals (Web-integrated systems). In this case, the portals,
combining a major information resources that have a high
educational value might be "entry point" in modern telecommunication
system for all persons somehow related to education. Using portals can more
effectively organize the work of teachers, because the portals are collected
and systematized the most popular resources. Using them, teachers, students and
parents will be able to access high quality learning and teaching materials,
reduce the time required to search for information, study the features of
classification of information resources on the Internet. Useful can be
collected at the portals links to resources that contain the contact
information of educational institutions and individual teachers, education
news, announcements of competitions, contests, conferences and other events,
which regularly participating teachers and students. Most of
the highest-quality information resources, the use of which would increase the
efficiency of secondary education in the educational catalogued online portals.
Horizontal portals (http://www.edu.ru/), Profile Vertical portals for disciplines: humanitarian, economic and social, natural sciences, engineering, teaching, health, agriculture, etc., specialized vertical portals: Publishing, a single exam, education news, etc.
Horizontal Portal "Russian Education" provides:
Navigation on all vertical portals;
Search multimedia information in the field of education on the Internet;
Personification and personal adaptation of the interface, either by user selects their own category (student, teacher, administrator, developer portal) and an indication of the level of education, and by designing your own interface;
Formation and sections of vertical portals by level of education;
Storing and providing information in the field of education (law, decrees, regulations, standards, lists of specialties, the federal set of textbooks, a database of universities, etc.);
Publication Daily Press on education;
News ticker in education;
Organization of forums, discussion groups, mailing lists.
Profile Vertical portals contain materials for
all levels of education: elementary school, middle school, elementary
vocational education, secondary education, higher education, further education,
postgraduate education. Vertical Specialized portals should provide information
support and services to address the specific problems of special federal level.
For all vertical portals must be provided a single interface, common rules for
updating and maintaining. Vertical portals are fully able to use the additional
information provided by the upper horizontal portal, its search engine, mass
personalization and adaptation interface. Distributed system of educational
portals based on a set of n portals: horizontal, vertical and enterprise.
Portals are divided at the national, inter-regional and regional.
Subject subjects taught in general secondary education;
Economics, Management and Sociology;
History and Philosophy;
Physics, Chemistry, Biology;
Information support unified state examination (USE);
Information support learning processes in the CIS.
The development of educational information resources aimed at further entry into the substance of educational portals are usually considered basic legal documents, including:
State educational standards;
Sample program disciplines;
Lists of required textbooks in the disciplines of basic component state educational standards of education. In many cases, using search engines, categorize and catalogue, which is almost every educational portal, teachers and students can greatly simplify the search for information resources to the educational process. Finding resources through portals need to make, given that the portal uses a single professional approach to:
Placing these functional elements;
Functional and artistic design information pages;
System of registration and authentication visitors and editors;
Mechanism attachments and more hypermedia information to published materials;
Contextual search technology and information for the correct operation of joint educational portal engine;
Indexation of the set of sites;
Mechanism consistent detail information;
Rules and techniques included in the information resources and educational portal of additional units and index.
Using portals, teachers must understand that developing a common policy in shaping the portal, and especially in the design intended for the information resources is a complex issue that still has not yet been resolved. This problem is compounded by the fact that the formation of portals through the benefits of modern telecommunications distributed in space and time: the costs of ICT are developed at different times by different creative teams, after which the finished products are integrated into the portal by sending data over telecommunication channels. As a result, teachers and students, as primary users of educational portals, lost a large number of heterogeneous information, based structure which is based on different criteria and principles of transmission, processing and presentation are subject to various manufacturing techniques. Many cases where the participants of the educational process has no justifiable acquire new advanced techniques operating with computers and software for each information resource, part of the Internet gateway. The use of audio and video information obtained via the Internet (using educational portals or not) has its own characteristics. In some cases, the playback of such information may give harm to students or lower the learning process. Modern teachers should know and anticipate the negative aspects arising from the use of information resources obtained from the Internet in general secondary education. In particular, some students are not able to use the one freedom that provide educational ICT tools. Often intricate and complex ways to present can cause distraction, both teachers and pupils of the test material due to various inconsistencies. In addition, the nonlinear structure of multimedia information resources in the Internet exposes users 'temptation' to follow the suggested links that may distract students from the mainstream of the schoolbooks. Every day more and more teachers began to work their own information resources development and other ICT tools, many of which fall into the Internet. Even if the teacher and is not engaged in their own development, it can use already created online resources, quality, educational effectiveness and ergonomics which in many cases do not stand up to scrutiny. And in fact, in both cases the teacher must master the basic requirements to be met by educational Internet resources in terms of minimizing the damage to health and psychology students. Teacher, working in schools should be aware that artistic decisions underlying the design used or created online resource is determined by the subject focus of the resource. This design ICT tools should be based on stylistic decisions hereditary with respect to local traditions and design of educational children's books used in the school and meet the requirements of healthy environment, and in the case of borrowing visual decisions taken in foreign media resources they need to adapt to local cultural traditions. Given the importance of minimizing damage to the psyche of students should be aware that the development and use of educational online resources unacceptable use of elements that may lead to ambiguous interpretations of aggressive, shocking, provocative visual and audio series. Making online resources should be made taking into account the fact that the learning resources are used such as the teacher and students. If necessary, as part of educational online resources should be allocated partitions design which focuses on children's perception based on the age group that will work with this release. At the same time, the design sections are intended primarily for teachers in preparation for the lesson should not contain complex scripts decision overloaded backgrounds, animated objects and similar items that distract from the work of Internet resources. It is important to design online resources provided the most effective perception of students of textual and graphical information is the main content of this electronic publication. In developing the design information pages should be avoided color and image making it difficult to read text information. A set of typefaces used to display basic text information shall be limited to fonts that provide easier perception of reading from the screen. Font style should provide both an easy recognition of the full character set as many individual elements, and the perception of any word or text block as a single visual image. In terms of the formation of a single area of healthy schools, including, in particular, and minimizing the differences of electronic educational resources and regular training books, it is important to layout text online educational resources was carried out in accordance with the rules adopted in the printing industry.
The current stage of development of the education sector is characterized by the massive introduction of information and communication technologies in the activities of all participants in the educational process. Computerization is one of the main factors that make education improved. Developing content and teaching methods, changing role of the teacher, which is gradually transformed from a translator knowledge organizer of students to acquire new knowledge and skills. An important means of information are the educational information resources published on the Internet. No chance of timely and correct use of all professionals working in education is the key to effective training of students. Implemented a number of projects aimed at developing the telecommunications environment education. In many parts of the country greatly expanded range of educational institutions that have full Internet access. Significant progress has been made in the training of education and training of members of the emerging information society. Great work has been done in improving the curriculum and content of electronic publications and resources. As part of this work formed a system of educational portals developed by professional kits electronic educational resources created and developed websites that provide access to information resources virtually all school subjects.
Features of Internet resources in educational activities
Today's society is called information, which is a staple of information and knowledge. Information society seen as a landmark, trend changes in today's world, it is associated with the development of information and communication technologies and their products. Informatization and computerization requires individuals to new knowledge and skills to be adapted to the conditions of information society. A special role is now assigned to the Internet - means of disseminating information, environment of cooperation and communication between people, which is the largest and popular computer network, which offers great opportunities to use it effectively in education. Provide a variety of educational services, educational information, opening opportunities using various resources on the Internet, including distance learning courses, distance competitions and contests, libraries, repositories text, interactive encyclopaedias, dictionaries, translators, virtual museums and exhibitions, etc. in the preparation of future specialists. The Internet is a source of very different information. Based on the educational purpose it may be, for example, educational resources, many of which are now and in the future their number increases. Almost all educational institutions, research institutions have their own websites that are constantly replenished information. Useful Internet resources are used to obtain further education, career choice and scope, constant improvement of professional knowledge, skills and so on. Stop at some educational resources that are acquired most prevalent:
- Distance learning.
- Distance Learning (DL) - a form of organization and implementation of the educational process by which the participants engaged in educational interaction fundamentally and primarily extraterritorial. (Bykov)
Currently, most development has taken distance learning using Internet technology, which is called E-MDs and allows you to perform:
- Free entry for distance learning courses. In most cases, early learning or studying a course there are no conditions and requirements;
- Self-planning learning. Everyone has a choice in the study questions, topics and chapters, self-determination of the sequence of their learning by selecting potential courses;
- Freedom of time, speed training, lack of time constraints, the study of specific issues and topics, independent study of the timing of educational material, assembly testing, monitoring and classification of work;
- The freedom to choose the place of study.
As noted by Bykov, the main problems of creation and implementation of e-MDs is a computer-technological, organizational, managerial, psychological, educational, financial, economic, regulatory and legal. Along with the knowledge necessary comprehensive and balanced solve each of these problems should provide psycho-educational - as such, theoretical and practical solution which is currently the most difficult task to the required limits are not defined and therefore not properly solved. The development of ICT in the learning process, their use has provided an opportunity to study at any time, from any location where the access to the Internet.
- Deleted competition and contests. Development Olympiad movement in Ukraine, contests, such as "IT Planet", "Ecosoft", "teacher-innovator" and others., Thanks to the World Wide Web provides an opportunity to attend and participate in all contests, and be present in finals. The presence of all participants contests in one location became optional. Currently, there are a significant number of various network projects and competitions, the conditions for participation have on competition and everyone who wants to has the opportunity to take part in them. This is a mixed conducting online games and contests based on a combination of eye and distance when the final stage of a round eye. Using Internet technology removes the territorial limits and opens up unlimited opportunities to participate in distance learning activities for everyone. The most prevalent international online competition, conducted in several stages. Online competitions and contests are held in most of the individual items or on the basis of their integration. The participants held several rounds: theoretical, design your own project or software and practical, if present experimental part, the practice of virtual physical, chemical or technical experiments, performed research projects, creative tasks, etc.;
- Virtual Library is an organization by means of navigating and searching stores various electronic documents. Here is the definition of virtual libraries. Virtual Library - digital or electronic library is defined as an on-line, which lies a common library to read books and access to other facilities, or it may be a site that offers links to various sites with significant plenty of information in the catalogue or archival form. The use of ICT can significantly improve the process of finding and obtaining the necessary Edition Reader Digital Library. Typically, virtual library provides its users with almost the same basic services and traditional library:
- Access to library catalogues with the organization of search and preparing a list of orders;
- Access to the library fund, which is represented by electronic analogues of various publications (books, magazines, newspapers, etc.)..
Virtual libraries can be a universal trend, publications on specific topics. Most e-library is created based on the traditional with the corresponding transfer them into electronic format and organization of remote access. The advantages of virtual libraries include:
- The use of library collections outside the library building;
- Availability of search optimization required publication including e-categorization and cataloguing;
- No restrictions on the number of simultaneous use of electronic library of documents;
- The use of electronic documents, followed by localization of fragments;
- Network directories and encyclopaedias.
- Yandex. Dictionaries (http://slovari.yandex.ru) - a search for the terms, definitions, articles, and translating words into 71st dictionary. All dictionaries are available. Yandex tape inquiry turns to tape a word to search for it in numerous dictionaries and references.
There are also other services that we offer online dictionary, encyclopaedia.
- Virtual museums and exhibitions. There are
various definitions of a virtual museum, we give them.
- Virtual Museum of
- Museums of the world;
- Art gallery;
- Academy and Library;
- Virtual gallery;
- Short historical information;
- Search page.
Now, for internet museums allocated a special top-level domain museum. The great strength of the Internet made it possible for anyone interested to touch the masterpieces in real time.