Form N - 3.04

SHEI "Ternopol State Medical University Horbachevsky

MOH UKRAINE"

 (Full name of university)

Department of Human Anatomy

 

 

"APPROVED"

First Pro-rector

Prof. Mysula IR

"14" June 2013

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Syllabus

STUDY SUBJECTS

Human Anatomy

 (Code and name of discipline)

Training direction                        1201 Medicine

(Code and name of the field of study)

Specialty             7.12010005 - "Dentistry"

(Code and name of specialty)

Faculty                       Dental

                                                         (Name of institution, faculty, department)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013 - 2014 Year

 


The work program on human anatomy

 (Name of discipline)

In the direction of 1201 Medicine,

Specialty 7.12010005 "Dentistry"

 

 

Developers:

Dr. Med., professor of anatomy Gerasimyuk I Ye

Assistant professor of anatomy Flekey P P

Assistant professor of anatomy Juszczak M V

Assistant Department of Human Anatomy Galitska-Harhalis O Ya

(Specify authors, their positions, degrees and academic titles)

 

 

 

Syllabus endorsed by the Department of Human Anatomy

 

Minutes from the "12" in June 2013 № 11

 

                         Head of the Department of Human Anatomy

 

 

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 (Gerasimyuk IE)

 (Signature)                                 (Surname and initials)     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ó __________, 2013

Ó __________, 2014


1.      Description Discipline

 

Name of indicators

Discipline, training direction, education and qualification level

Characteristic of discipline

full-time education

Credits - 14.5

Discipline

____ 1201 ___ Medicine

 (Code and name)

Normative

Modules - 3

Specialty:

7.12010005 "Dentistry"

Year of training

Content modules - 17

1st

Semester

Total hours -315

1st

2nd

Lectures

Weekly hours for full-time study:

audience - 9.9

independent work of students - 5.85

Educational qualification:

specialist

6 hours

12 hours

Practical

60 hours

120 hours

Laboratory

Independent work

24 hours

93 hours

Individual tasks:

 

 

Type of control:

Test control module

Test control module

 

 

 

Note.

Ratio of number of hours of classroom training and independent work is (%):

For full-time study - 65: 35

 

 

 


  1.  

2. The aims and objectives of the discipline

Objective: Human Anatomy aims to:

·                   trained physician by profession according to the power of the semantic module (natural-scientific training);

·                   be the basis for building the content of the discipline;

·                   mastering the structure of systems of rights;

·                   to determine anatomical preparations topographic anatomical relationship of the person;

·                   mastery of Latin terminology in accordance with international anatomical nomenclature (San Paulo, 1997);

·                   evaluation of age, sex and individual structure of organs

Objectives:

·                   analyze information the structure of the human body, of which it consists, organs and tissues;

·                    determine the topographic anatomical relationships of organs and human systems;

·                    interpret patterns of prenatal and early postnatal development of the human versions of variability, malformations;

·                    interpret sex, age and individual peculiarities of the structure of the human body;

·                    predict the interdependence and unity of the structures and functions of human variability under the influence of environmental factors;

·                    determine the influence of social conditions and work on the development and structure of the human body;

·                    To demonstrate the moral - ethical attitude to a living person and her body as an object of anatomical and clinical study.

 

A study of the discipline the student must

Know:

        All anatomical structure of the human body;

        navigate the topographic location of anatomic features and human systems;

Be able to:

        free to use anatomical terminology;

        determine the placement of certain organs and entire systems, blood vessels, nerves in the physical body;

        display and called on radiographs, CT and MRI of the body, certain organs and blood vessels;

        dissect the different parts of the physical body;


3.      Program Discipline

 

Module 1. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal system

Content module 1. Introduction to Anatomy

Specific objectives:

- Identify the subject and the problem of anatomy, basic anatomical methods;

- Assess the main areas of modern anatomy;

- Analyze the formative stages of human anatomy as the fundamental discipline;

- To analyze the contribution of prominent scientists and anatomists Ukraine and Kyiv in the Ukrainian establishment of schools and anatomists including Kiev anatomical school.

 

Theme 1. Subject and tasks of anatomy. Research methods in anatomy. The main directions of development of modern anatomy

Human anatomy is the science of form and structure, origin and development of the human body, its organs and systems. Anatomy provides a systematic description of the shape, structure, condition and topographical relationship of the parts and organs of the body, taking into account their age, sex and individual characteristics.

The main directions of development of modern anatomy are age anatomy, comparative anatomy, plastic anatomy, anthropology, environmental and other anatomy.

Basic research methods in anatomy - a visual study, anthropometric studies, preparation, macro-microscopic study microscopic study. Modern methods of research in anatomy: x-ray methods, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, endoscopy and others.

 

Theme 2. The development of Ukrainian anatomical schools

Formation and development of Ukrainian anatomical schools.

 

Theme 3. Kiev’ anatomical school

Formation and development of Kyiv anatomical school. Contribution MI Kozlov, OP Valtera, VA Betz, MA Tikhomirov, FA Stefanisa, MS Spirova, II Baize in the anatomical development of the Kiev school and the importance of their work for the modern anatomy.

 

Content module 2. Anatomy of bones

 Specific objectives:

- Use anatomical terminology to refer to the bones, the explanation of the topography;

- Apply the anatomical planes and axes to explain the topography of bones and their parts;

- Identify and analyze the concept of "bone as the body";

- To analyze the mechanisms of bone development in embryogenesis;

- Use classification to analyze the structure of the bones of the skeleton bones;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the bones of the body, skull and limbs.

 

Theme 4. Bone as an organ. Classification of bones. 

Bone development in embryogenesis

General information about the skeleton. Bone development (ontogeny). Primary and secondary bone. Classification of bones. Bone as an organ. Compact and spongy bone material, its structure. Chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties of bone. The structure of a tubular bone: part of it. Features of the structure of the bones in children, youth, mature, elderly and senile age. Bone X-ray image. The impact of social and environmental factors on the development and structure of skeletal bones.

 

Theme 5. Anatomical nomenclature. Axes and planes of the body

The concept of international anatomical nomenclature. Its importance for the study of anatomy and unify the study of natural sciences and clinical disciplines. Basic anatomical terms that reveal the topography of anatomical objects and their main characteristics.

Anatomical planes (sagittal, frontal, horizontal) and axis

(Front, vertical, sagittal), their characteristics, use to describe the bones and their parts.

 

Theme 6. Anatomy of the bones of the trunk

The bones of the skeleton: vertebrae, ribs, sternum.  General characteristics of the spinal column. General plan of the vertebrae. Peculiarities of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccygeal bone. Age-and gender-vertebral structure. The impact of social and environmental factors on the structure of the vertebrae. Malformations of the vertebrae.

Classification of edges. The structure of the ribs and sternum. Age-and gender-structure sternum. The impact of social and environmental factors on the structure of the ribs and sternum.

 

Theme 7. Anatomy of the skull bones

The development of the cranial ontogeny. The brain and facial skull. The structure of the bones that form the skull brain: frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, temporal, lattice. The structure of the bones that form the facial skull: mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, nasal, palatine, Lacrimal, hyoid bone, vomer, inferior turbinate. The vault of the skull, external and internal base of the skull. Front, middle and posterior cranial fossa, fossa eye, bone nasal cavity, temporal, Infratemporal fossa. Age and gender structure of the skull. Variations and anomalies of the cranial bones. X-ray anatomy of the skull.

 

Theme 8. Anatomy of the bones of the upper and lower extremities

Upper limb: its divisions. The bones of the upper limb: the departments. Upper extremity: clavicle, scapula, and their structure. The free part of the upper limb: humerus, forearm and hand, their structure. Development of bones of the upper limb in ontogeny. Variations and anomalies of the bones of the upper limb.

Lower limb: its divisions. The bones of the lower extremity: departments. The belt of the lower extremity: hip bone, its structure. Parts of the hip bones, their structure. The free part of the lower limbs: femur, tibia bone, feet, their structure. The development of bones of the lower limb in ontogeny. Variations and anomalies of the bones of the lower extremity.

Age, sex structural features of the bones of the extremities. Specific structural features of the bones of the upper and lower limbs, due to processes of anthropology. The impact of sport, work, social factors and environmental factors on the structure of the bones of the upper and lower extremities.

 

Content module 3. Connecting bones

Specific objectives:

- Identify and analyze the types of connections between the bones;

- Describe and demonstrate the connection between the bones of the body;

- Describe and demonstrate the connection between the bones of the skull;

- Describe and demonstrate the connection between the bones of the upper extremities;

- Describe and demonstrate the connection between the bones of the lower extremities;

 

Theme 9. Anatomy of continuous and discontinuous joints between the bones. The development of connections between the bones in the ontogeny

Classification of joints between the bones: Fibrous connection (syndesmosis), cartilaginous connection (synhondrosis), symphysis. Diartroz (synovial connection joints): definition, basic features of the joint, their characteristics. Additional components of the joints. Classification of joints in structure, shape of the articular surfaces function. Simple, compound, complex and combination joints: their characteristics. Types of movements and their analysis (axis movements plane movements).

 

Theme 10. The connection between the bones of the body and bones of the skull

Classification of joints of the spinal column.  The joints of the vertebral column: median atlanto-axial joint, lateral atlanto-axial joint, lumbosacral joint, sacrococcygeal joint: their structure. Vertebral column as a whole. Age, gender-spine as a whole. The impact of sport, work, social factors and environmental factors on the spine as a whole.

Connecting chest: their characteristics and structure. Thorax as a whole, its structure. The impact of sport, work, social factors and environmental factors on the structure of the chest as a whole.

Connecting skull: classification.  The joints of the skull: the temporo-mandibular joint and the atlanto-occipital joint: their structure. X-ray anatomy of the temporo-mandibular joint. Age features of the skull connection: fontanel, their types, structure.

 

Theme 11. The connection between the bones of the upper and lower extremities

The connection of the upper extremity. Connecting pectoral girdle: syndesmosis upper extremity and upper extremity joints (acromioclavicular joint and sternoclavicular joint), their structure. The free upper extremity: shoulder joint, elbow, forearm connection, the wrist joint, the joints of the hand.

The connection of the lower limbs. Connecting pelvic girdle: syndesmosis, pubic symphysis, the sacroiliac joint.  Age, gender, individual characteristics of the pelvis. The free lower limb: hip joint, knee joint, compound lower leg bones, ankle joints, the joints of the foot. Arch of the foot.

X-ray anatomy bone joints of the upper and lower extremities. The impact of sport, work, social factors and environmental factors on the structure of compounds bones of the upper and lower extremities.

 

Content module 4. Myology

Specific objectives:

- Identify and analyze the concept of "muscle as the body";

- Analyze the classification of skeletal muscle topography, development, structure, form and so on.;

- Analyze the development of skeletal muscle in ontogenesis;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fascia of the body;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fascia of the head and neck;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fascia of the head;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fascia of the neck;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fascia of the upper limb;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fascia of the lower extremities.

 

Theme 12. Muscle as an organ. Classification of muscles. The development of skeletal muscle

Body muscle - the definition. Tendon, aponeurosis. Auxiliary aids muscle: fascia, synovial sheath, synovial bags, sesamoid bones, tendon arch muscle power. Anatomical and physiological widths muscles: basic information about the strength and muscle performance, the concept of leverage. Home and attachment of muscles: their functional characteristics.

Classification of muscles: the development, topography, shape, size, direction of muscle fibers, function and so on.

Muscle development in ontogenesis. Muscles power of the trunk, head, and neck, upper and lower extremities.

 

Theme 13. Anatomy muscles and fascia of the body

Classification of muscles of the trunk by topography, development and form. Segmental structure of the muscles of the trunk.

Back muscles: superficial and deep, their characteristics. Breast-lumbar fascia.

The muscles of the chest: superficial and deep, their characteristics. Thoracic fascia, intra thoracic fascia.

Abdominal muscles: muscles of the anterior, lateral and posterior walls of the stomach and their characteristics. The fascia of the abdomen. White line. Umbilical ring. Inguinal canal. Vagina recti.

Aperture - definition. Parts of diaphragm: apertures, their contents, and triangles.

 

Theme 14. Anatomy muscles and fascia of the head and neck. Topography of the Neck

The muscles of the head: classification. Masticatory muscles and their characteristics. The muscles of the face, they are unlike other skeletal muscles. Classification of muscles of face, their characteristics. The fascia of the head.

Neck muscles: classification. Superficial, medium and deep neck muscles and their characteristics. The fascia of the neck: anatomic classification and anatomical and topographical classification. Topography of the Neck: areas, triangles, open spaces.

 

Theme 15. Anatomy muscles and fascia of the upper and lower extremities. Topography of the upper and lower extremities

Muscles of the upper limb: classification. The muscles of the upper limb girdle and their characteristics. The muscles of the shoulder: classification and their characteristics. The muscles of the forearm: classification, their characteristics. The muscles of the hand: classification and their characteristics. The fascia of the upper limb. Axillary fossa, axillary cavity, its topography, triangles, quadrilateral and trilateral holes. Brachiocephalic muscular canal. Grooves on the front surface of the shoulder. Cubital fossa. The furrows on the anterior surface of the forearm. Carpal tunnel, synovial sheath tendon flexor muscles. Synovial bags.

Muscles of the lower limb: classification. Muscles of the lower limb girdle: classification, their characteristics. The muscles of the hip: classification and their characteristics. The muscles of the lower leg: classification and their characteristics. The muscles of the foot: classification and their characteristics. The fascia of the lower limb. Muscular and vascular Gulf of topography and content. Femoral triangle. Grooves on the front of the thigh. The drive channel. Popliteal fossa. Channels tibia: ankle-popliteal channel top and bottom muscle-shin channels. Furrows sole of the foot. Femoral canal. Holders of the extensor muscles, flexor muscles. Synovial sheath synovial bags and muscles of the lower limbs. Mechanisms that support the arch of the foot: Tightening foot passive (ligaments) and active (muscle).

Age, sex and individual characteristics of skeletal muscle. The impact of sport, work, social factors and environmental factors on the structure of skeletal muscles of the trunk and extremities.

 

Module 2. Splanchnology. Central nervous system and sense organs

 

Content module 5. Anatomy of the Digestive System

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the classification of internal organs;

- Determine the overall body plan of tubular organs and organ-evaluate structural features inherent in a tubular organ, due to its function.

- Determine the overall body plan of parenchymal organs;

- Analyze the development of the oral cavity and its derivatives in embryogenesis;

- Analyze the development of the digestive system in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of the digestive system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the mouth and its derivatives

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the digestive system;

 

Topic 1. Introduction to splanchnology. Classification of internal organs. General laws of the tubular structure. Common structural patterns of parenchymal organs

Classification of internal organs and parenchymal elements. General plan of the walls of tubular organs: mucous membrane, muscle membrane, the outer membrane. Characteristics of each shell. Organ structural features of the mucous membranes, depending on the function of the organ. Serous membrane: relation of variants to the peritoneum. Common structural patterns of parenchymal organs. 

 

Theme 2. General anatomy of the digestive system Embryogenesis Oral cavity and its derivatives. Embryogenesis of digestive system. Anomalies and variants of the digestive system

Digestive system: organs function. The development of the oral cavity and its derivatives. The development of the gastrointestinal tract. The development of the liver and pancreas. Primary and secondary body cavity. Sources of serous membranes. The development of the peritoneum. Structural mechanisms of defects of the mouth and its derivatives. Anomalies and variants of development of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas.

 

Theme 3. Anatomy of the mouth and its derivatives

Mouth: part of it. The walls of the vestibule of the mouth and oral cavity proper, their combination.

Teeth. Parts of the tooth. . Surface of the crown. General structure of the teeth. Periodontium. Permanent teeth: their formula, description of each tooth. Anatomical features of the permanent teeth. Timing of eruption of permanent teeth. Baby teeth: formula, structural features, terms eruption. X-ray anatomy of the teeth. Bite. Development of teeth. Anomalies and variants of the teeth.

Palate: hard palate, soft palate, their structure. Tonsils.

Tongue: part. Features of the structure of the mucosa, tongue muscles.

Mouth cancer: classification, their development. Small salivary glands: classification, topography, structure. Major salivary glands: topography, characterization, structure, classification.

 

Theme 4. Anatomy of the digestive tract

Throat, its topography, parts, connections. Fauces: its limits. Lymphatic (lymphoid) ring of the pharynx. The structure of the pharyngeal wall: mucosa, pharyngeal-main fascia, muscles of the pharynx, the outer shell.

Esophagus: topography, parts, structure wall. Narrowing of the esophagus. X-ray anatomy of the esophagus.

Stomach: topography, of the stomach. The structure of the stomach wall: structural features of the mucosa (topography, cancer), muscle layer and serosa.  Links stomach. Variations form the stomach: Anatomic (on the body) and x-ray (a living person). The shape of the stomach, depending on the type of body structure. Age features of the topography and structure of the stomach.

Small intestine, its departments. Duodenum: parts, topography, variations of form and position. X-ray anatomy of the duodenum. Topography of the mesenteric small intestine: empty and ileum. The structure of the wall of the small intestine. The structure of the mucosa: intestinal villi, glands, folds, lymphatic (lymphoid) nodules. Peculiarities of the mucosa of the small intestine in its various departments. The structure of the muscle membrane. Normal peritoneum each section of the small intestine. Age-related structural features of the small intestine.

Colon: departments. The structure of the wall of the large intestine: mucosa (glands, folds, lymphatic (lymphoid) nodules), muscle membrane, serous membrane. Normal peritoneum each section of the colon. The cecum and appendix: topography, structural features. Variants position of the appendix and its projection on the anterior abdominal wall. Colon: parts, bends, their topography, structural features of the mucosa and muscle layer. Normal peritoneum. Rectum: parts, bends, topography. Features topography of the rectum, depending on gender. Features of the structure of the mucosa and muscle layer. Normal peritoneum. Pyloric channel: topography, structural features of the mucosa and muscle membranes. Muscle-latches anus.

Macroscopic structure undo the small and large intestine.

Age-related structural features of the colon.

X-ray anatomy of the colon. The shape and position of the colon in a living person.

 

Theme 5. Anatomy large digestive glands: liver and pancreas

Liver. Topography. External structure: edges, surfaces and their relief. Communications of the liver. Normal peritoneum. The internal structure of the liver: share, segments, segments. The vessels of the liver. Liver function.

Ways secretion of bile. Gallbladder: topography, parts, structure wall function. The common bile duct: formation, topography.

Age features of the topography and structure of the liver. Age related structural features of the gallbladder.

Pancreas: parts, topography, structure, functions. Pancreatic ducts. 

Age features of the topography and structure of the pancreas.

 

Theme 6. Anatomy of the peritoneum

Peritoneum. The abdominal cavity and its contents. Peritoneal cavity and its contents. Parietal peritoneum, visceral peritoneum: their characteristics. Options ratio of internal organs to the peritoneum. Derived peritoneum: ripple, gaskets, connections, their structure and function. Derived peritoneal cavity: bags (liver, pregastric, omental - their walls, connections), sinus, channels, recesses, holes, depressions. The topography of the peritoneum in the pelvic cavity: sexual characteristics. Topography parietal peritoneum on the front, the back wall of the abdominal cavity.

Content module 6. Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the development of the respiratory system in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variations of the respiratory system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the respiratory system;

 

Theme 7. General anatomy of the respiratory system.

Embryogenesis of the respiratory system

Respiratory system: organs function. The upper and lower airways. Development of the respiratory system in ontogenesis. Variations and anomalies of the respiratory system.

 

Theme 8. Anatomy of the Respiratory System

External nose: part structure. Nasal cavity: vestibule, nasal passages, paranasal sinuses. The functional part of the nasal cavity. The nasal part of the pharynx. Age features of the nasal cavity.

Larynx. Topography. The structure of the larynx: cartilage, ligaments, joints and muscles. Elastic cone quadrangular membrane. The cavity of the larynx: parts, their limits. Vocal folds, creases vestibule. Glottis. Mechanisms of phonation. X-ray anatomy of the larynx. Age features of the larynx.

Trachea: parts, topography, structure wall. Main bronchi: topography, structure wall. Bronchial tree. Age features of the trachea and main bronchi.

Lungs: Topography, external structure. Gates lungs. The root of the lung and its components. Shares, segments, segments of the lung. Acinus. The circulatory system of the lungs. X-ray anatomy of the trachea, bronchi, lungs. Age features of the lungs.

Pleura. Parietal pleura and its topographical parts. Visceral pleura. Pleural cavity: content, crannies, their functional significance.

Projection pleural sacs on the walls of the chest cavity.

Mediastinum: definition, limits. The bodies of the anterior mediastinum. Bodies posterior mediastinum.

 

Topical module 7. Anatomy of the Urinary System

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the development of the urinary system in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variations of the urinary system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the urinary system.

 

Tema.9. General anatomy of the urinary system. 

Embryogenesis of the urinary system. Anomalies and variations 

Development of urinary system

Urinary system: organs function. Development of the urinary system in ontogenesis. Variations and abnormalities of the urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.

 

Theme 10. Anatomy of the urinary system.

Kidney: topography of the right and left kidney. Outer structure of the kidney. The ratio of buds to the peritoneum. Shell kidney. Fixing apparatus of the kidney. Topography elements renal legs. The internal structure of the kidney. Segments of the kidney. Nephron - structural and functional unit of the kidney. The structure of the circulatory system of the kidney. Urinary tract. Small renal calyx, major renal calyx, renal pelvis, structure wall function. X-ray anatomy of the kidney. Age features of the topography and structure of the kidney.

Ureter: parts, topography, structure wall function. Normal peritoneum. Narrowing of the ureter.

Bladder: form, external structure, parts. Features topography in men and women. The structure of the wall of the bladder: structural features of the mucosa, muscle layer. Normal peritoneum (depending on the functional state).

Women's urethra. Male urethra.

X-ray anatomy of the urinary tract (ureters, bladder, urethra). Age features of the bladder.

 

Content module 8. Anatomy of the reproductive systems

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the development of the female reproductive system in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variations of the female reproductive system;

- Analyze the development of the male reproductive system in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of development of male reproductive system;

- Describe and demonstrate on preparations structure of the internal and external female genitalia;

- Describe and demonstrate on preparations structure of internal and external male genitalia.

 

Theme 11. General anatomy of the male reproductive system. Embryogenesis of the male reproductive system. Variations and anomalies 

development of the male reproductive system

Male reproductive system: organs function. Classification of the male reproductive system. The internal male genitalia. The external male genitalia. The development of the male reproductive system ontogeny. Variations and anomalies of the internal male sex organs: testis, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, the prostate gland. Variations and anomalies of the external male genitalia.

 

Theme 12. Anatomy of the male reproductive system

The internal male sex organs. Testis: topography, structure. Epididymis. The process of lowering the testicles. Shell testicles. Vas deferens: parts, their topography, structure wall. Spermatic cord and its components. Seminal vesicle: topography, structure, functions. Ductus deferens. Prostate: topography, parts, structure, functions. Bulbo-uretral gland. Age features internal male sex organs.

The external male genitalia. Penis, its structure. Male urethra: parts, their topography, structure wall.

 

Theme 13. General anatomy of the female reproductive system.

Embryogenesis of the female reproductive system. Options

and abnormalities of the female reproductive system

Female reproductive system: organs function. Classification of the female reproductive system. Internal female genitalia. External female genitalia. The development of the female reproductive system ontogeny. Variations and anomalies of the internal female reproductive organs: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina. Variations and anomalies of the external female genitalia.

 

Theme 14. Anatomy of the female reproductive system. Crotch.

Internal female genitalia. Ovary: Topography, external structure, internal structure, relations ovarian relation to peritoneal function. Cyclic changes in the structure of the ovary. Age related structural features of the ovary.

Uterine tube: topography, parts, structure walls relation to peritoneal function.

Uterus: topography, shape, parts, structure wall. Ligament of the uterus, the relation to the peritoneum function. Age related features of the structure of the uterus and its options position.

Vagina: vault, wall structure.

X-ray anatomy of internal female reproductive organs.

External female genitalia. Women pudendal area: pubic increase, large pudendal lips, small pudendal lips, vestibule of the vagina, vestibule bulb, large vestibule glands, small vestibule glands. The clitoris. Female urethra.

Perineum: determination, topography. Urogenital diaphragm: boundaries, muscle, fascia, sexual withdrawal. Pelvic diaphragm: limits muscle fascia. Illia-Sciatic fossa: scope, content.

 

Content module number 9. Anatomy of the immune and endocrine systems

Specific objectives:

- Identify common patterns of structure and function of the central organs of the immune system (lymph or primary lymphoid organs);

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the immune system;

- Identify common-of the structure and function of the endocrine system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the endocrine system;

 

Theme 15. General anatomy of the central and peripheral organs of the immune system

Immune system: functions. Classification of immune (lymphatic or lymphoid) system function. Central organs of the immune system (primary lymphoid organs or lymph): bone marrow, retrosternal gland (thymus) - structural patterns of their functions.

Peripheral organs of the immune system (lymph and secondary lymphoid organs): structural patterns of their functions.

The development of the immune system in embryogenesis.

 

Theme 16. Anatomy of the immune system

Central organs of the immune system (lymph or primary lymphoid organs). Red bone marrow. Yellow bone marrow. Topography, structure, functions. Age features of the bone marrow.  Retrosternal gland (thymus): topography, structure, functions. Age features of the thymus.

Peripheral organs of the immune system (lymph and secondary lymphoid organs). Spleen: topography, structure, functions. Lymphatic (lymphoid) ring throat: tonsils what its form, their topography, structure, functions. Lymph nodes: classification, structure, function. Single lymphatic (lymphoid) nodules: topography, structure, functions. Clusters of lymphatic (lymphoid) nodules: topography, structure, functions. Clusters of lymphatic (lymphoid) nodules of the appendix: topography, structure, functions. Age-related features of the structure of the peripheral immune system.

Theme 17. General anatomy of the endocrine organs

General principles of the structure of endocrine organs. Structural definition of "endocrine function." Structured implementation mechanisms of hormone action. Classification of endocrine organs.

Development of endocrine organs in embryogenesis. Of functional activity of endocrine organs during the prenatal period of human ontogenesis. Variations and malformations of endocrine organs.

 

Theme 18. Anatomy of the Endocrine system

Thyroid gland: topography, structure, functions.

Parathyroid gland: topography, structure, functions.

Adrenal gland: structure, functions. Topography of the right and left adrenal glands.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas: structure, function.

Pituitary: topography, parts, structure, functions.

The pineal gland: topography, structure, functions.

 

Content modul10. Anatomy of the Spinal Cord

Specific objectives:

- Identify the general principles of structure and function of the central nervous system;

- Analyze the development of the central nervous system in ontogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of the spinal cord and brain;

- Describe and demonstrate the external and internal structure of the spinal cord.

 

Theme 19. Introduction to the CNS. General principles of the structure of reflex arcs. The gray and white matter of the CNS. The development of the central nervous system in ontogenesis

The leading role of the nervous system in the body, its importance for the integration of systems of a single-piece body, to establish the relationship of the organism with the environment. Classification of the nervous system for topographic level (central nervous system and peripheral nervous system) and anatomical and functional level (somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system). The general principle of the structure of the neuron. Morphological and functional classification of neurons. Receptors and their classification. General plan of synapses. Reflex arc. Gray matter of the CNS. Glia. Principles of spatial organization of the gray matter of the CNS. Ganglia. White matter of the CNS. Nerve fibers, nerve bundles, roots.

The development of the nervous system in ontogenesis. The development of the spinal cord in embryogenesis. Brain development in embryogenesis: stage three and five brain bubbles and their derivatives. Anomalies of the spinal cord. Abnormalities of the brain.

 

Subject 20. External and internal structure of the spinal cord. 
The structure of the spinal nerve

Topography of the spinal cord and its limits. The outer structure of the spinal cord (surface furrows cord, thickening).Segmental structure of the spinal cord. The ratio between the vertebrae and spinal cord segments. The internal structure of the spinal cord: central canal, gray and white matter. The structure of the posterior, lateral and anterior horns of the spinal cord. White matter: classification. Composition of the front, side and rear ropes spinal cord. Own segmental apparatus of the spinal cord. The sensor node spinal nerve. Front and rear spine. The formation of the trunk of the spinal nerve. Age-related structural features of the spinal cord.

 

Content module 11. Anatomy of the Brain

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the classification of the brain for anatomical principles and developments;

- Describe and demonstrate the external and internal structure of the brain.

Theme 21. Brain development in embryogenesis. 
Anatomy of the original diamond-shaped brain and midbrain

The brain. The brain: the great brain, cerebellum, brain stem. Classification of the brain developments. The original diamond-shaped brain: medulla oblongata and hindbrain

Medulla oblongata: boundaries, external structure. Internal structure: gray and white matter.

Bridge: external structure. Internal structure: gray and white matter.

Cerebellum: Topography, external structure. Internal structure: gray and white matter. Composition legs cerebellum.

Rhomboid fossa: formation, boundaries, topography. The projection of the nuclei of the cranial nerves on the surface of rhomboid fossa.

Fourth ventricle: wall connection.

Midbrain its parts. Roof plate: external structure, internal structure: gray and white matter. Brain stem, parts, internal structure: gray and white matter. Plumbing the brain.

 

Theme 22. Anatomy derivatives forebrain

Derived forebrain: the diencephalon, the final brain.

Diencephalon: parts (dorsal - thalamic brain, ventral part - the hypothalamus). Parts thalamic brain: the thalamus, epithalamus,

metatalamus. Thalamus: external structure. Internal structure: nucleus and their functions. Epithalamus: parts. The pineal gland and its functions. Metatalamus: parts and their functions. Hypothalamus: its components. Pituitary. The nuclei of the hypothalamus and their functions. Hypothalamic-pituitary system. The third ventricle: wall connection.

Final brain: cerebral hemisphere. Corpus callosum, fornix, anterior commissure. Olfactory brain: parts and their components. Basal nuclei: topography, parts, functions.  The bark of the brain. The relief of the cerebral hemispheres: sulcus and convolutions. Morphological bases of dynamic localization of functions in the cerebral cortex of the brain. Hemispheric white matter: classification. Associative fiber: classification, function. Commissural fibers and their functions. Projection fibers: Classification. Internal capsule: parts, topography pathways in each part.

Lateral ventricles: parts, their topography, walls, connections.

Age-related features of the structure of the brain.

 

Theme 23. Pathways of CNS

Pathways - determination. Anatomical and functional classification of the pathways of the central nervous system: associative pathways (short and long), commissural pathways projection pathways (ascending and descending). Ascending (afferent) pathways: exteroceptive, proprioceptive, interoceptive.  Descending (efferent) pathways: pyramidal, extrapyramidal, cortical-bridge. Pyramidal motor system (centers, pathways). Extrapyramidal system (centers, pathways).

 

Theme 24. Meninges of the spinal cord and brain. Formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid paths.

Meninges of the spinal cord. Intermeningeal spaces and their contents. Meninges of the brain. Peculiarities of dura mater of the brain. Processes dura mater of the brain, their topography. Sinuses dura mater of the brain. Intermeningeal spaces of the brain and their contents. Formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid paths.

 

Content module 12. Sense organs

Specific objectives:

- Identify the general principles of structure and function of the senses;

- Analyze the development of the senses and in ontogeny;

- Analyze anomalies and variations of the senses;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the eyeball and additional structures of the eye;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear.

 

Theme 25. Anatomy senses

Anatomical and functional characteristics of the senses. Peripheral receptors, guides and cortical centers analyzers, their functional integrity. Olfactory organ. Olfactory mucosa of the nose. Pathways olfactory analyzer.

Organ of taste. Taste papillae of the tongue, their topography. Pathways taste analyzer.

The total cover. Skin: function. Types of skin sensitivity. Breast gland.

 

Theme 26. Eye and structure formation.

Ontogeny eye. Anomalies and variants of the eye. Topography, structure, functions. Eyeball. Shell eyeball: fibrous, vascular, inner (retina) - their structure. Eyeball cameras: front, back, their walls. Vitreous body, lens. Aqueous humor: a place of education, flight paths. Accommodative apparatus of the eye. Additional structures of the eye: eyelids, eyebrows, conjunctiva, external muscles of the eyeball, eye socket fascia. Lacrimal apparatus and its components. Pathways of the visual analyzer. Pathways pupillary reflex.

 

Subject 27. Anatomy of the ear

Ear. Development ear ontogeny. Abnormalities of the ear. Parts of the ear: outer, middle and inner ear. Outer ear part of their structure. Mean ear piece. Tympanic cavity: wall content. Hearing pits: their structure. Joints, ligaments, muscles of auditory ossicles. The combination of the tympanic cavity. Auditory tube: part structure. Inner ear pieces topography. Bone Maze: vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea, their structure. Membranous labyrinth: vestibular labyrinth, semicircular ducts, their structure. The mechanism of perception and ways of conducting sound. Pathways of hearing and balance.

 

Module 3. Heart. The vessels and nerves of head, neck, trunk and extremities

Content module 13. Cranial nerves

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the classification of the cranial nerves.

- Identify the general principles of the structure of the cranial nerves of different origin.

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the I-XII pairs of cranial nerves.

- Analyze the overall structure vegetative nodes of the head.

 

Topic 1. Classification of cranial nerves. 

general anatomy of vegetative nodes of the head

General characteristics of the cranial nerves. Common features and differences in the structure of the cranial and spinal nerves. Classification of cranial nerve function (motor, sensory, mixed). Classification of cranial nerve origin. The development of the cranial nerves due to the senses. Differences structure of the cranial nerves, brain derivatives (I, II vapor) from the rest of the cranial nerves. General plan of motor, sensory and mixed cranial nerves. General plan of vegetative nodes of head: roots and branches.

 

Theme 2. Anatomy I-XII pairs of cranial nerves.

Anatomy of cranial nerves: the nucleus, their localization, the output of the nerve cord, with

skull, nerve branches, the composition of the fibers, topography, areas of innervation. I, II pairs of cranial nerves - especially their anatomy. IV, VI couples: their core, the output of the nerves of the brain from the skull, areas of innervation. Pair of cranial nerves III: kernel output nerve of the brain from the skull, the branches, the composition of the fibers, areas of innervation, link of vegetative nodes of the head (ciliary node). Pair of cranial nerves V: intracranial part - kernel ternary node, sensory and motor roots. Branches V pairs: the composition of fibers out of the skull area innervation, having links with the vegetative nodes of the head. VII pair and intermediate nerve: nucleus, topography, branches, composition of fibers, areas of innervation. Bundles of intermediate nerve branches from the vegetative nodes of the head (wing-palate, submandibular, sublingual). Anatomy VIII couples: Part-sensitive units, topography. IX pair: kernel output nerve of the brain from the skull, the branches, the composition of the fibers, areas of innervation link of vegetative nodes of the head (ear node). Pair X: kernel-sensitive units, the output of nerve brain from the skull, branches, areas of innervations. XI pair: kernel output nerve of the brain from the skull, areas of innervation. XII pair: kernel output nerve of the brain from the skull, areas of innervation. Vegetative nodes of the head (wing-palate, Ciliary, submandibular, hypoglossal, otic): their roots and branches, areas of innervations.

 

Content module 14. Anatomy of the Heart

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the development of heart ontogeny;

- Analyze anomalies and variations of the heart;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the heart;

- Describe the large pulmonary circulation, fetal circulation.

 

Theme . Introduction to the cardiovascular system. Anatomy of the heart. 
A large circle and pulmonary circulation. Circulation of the fetus.

General principles of the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. The components of the cardiovascular cardiovascular system: arteries, veins. Lymphatic vessels, the principles of their structure, functions.

Topography of the heart. The shape, the position of the heart. External structure of the heart. Chambers of the heart: their structure. Heart valves. The structure of the heart wall: endocardium, myocardium, epicardiumConducting system of the heart. Arteries and veins of the heart. Core, its structure, pericardial cavity contents sinus. Mapping boundaries of the heart and valves on the front wall of the chest cavity. Developmental anatomy of the heart. A large circle and pulmonary circulation. Circulation of the fetus.

 

Theme . The development of the heart in embryogenesis. 
Anomalies and variants of the heart.

Stages of development of the heart in human embryogenesis. Variations and anomalies of the heart. Structural mechanisms of cardiac abnormalities.

 

Content module 15. The vessels of the head and neck.

 

Specific objectives:

- Identify the general principles of structure and function of the cardiovascular system.

- Describe and demonstrate the arterial vessels of the head and neck.

- Describe and demonstrate the veins of the head and neck.

- Identify the lymphatic vessels and nodes of the head and neck.

- To analyze the source of blood supply and innervation of the head and neck.

 

Theme Arterial vessels of the head and neck

Aorta of the aorta. Aortic arch and its branches. Common carotid artery: topography, branches. Features of the right and left common carotid artery. External carotid artery: topography, classification of branches. The branches of the external carotid artery: topography, areas of blood supply. The internal carotid artery: parts, their topography. The branches of the internal carotid artery: topography, areas of blood supply. Subclavian artery: parts, their topography. Features right and left subclavian artery. The branches of the subclavian artery: topography, areas of blood supply. Blood supply of the brain and spinal cord. Arterial circle of the brain. Intersystem arterial anastomoses in the region of the head and neck.

 

Theme 6. Veins of the head and neck

The internal jugular vein: formation, topography, classification tributaries. Intracranial tributaries, tributary of extracranial internal jugular vein.

Pterygoid plexus: topography, formation. Anastomosis between the intracranial and extracranial internal jugular vein and its tributaries. The external jugular vein: formation, topography, tributaries. Anterior jugular vein: formation, topography, tributaries. Jugular venous arch: topography, formation. Brachiocephalic vein: education (roots), topography, tributaries. Superior vena cava: education (roots), topography, tributaries.

 

Theme 7. Anatomy lymph trunks and lymph ducts.

Thoracic duct: roots, topography, tributaries, the confluence of the venous system. The right lymphatic duct: roots, topography, confluence of the venous system.

 

Theme 8. Anatomy of the lymph vessels and nodes of the head and neck

Jugular trunks: formation, topography, areas of collecting lymph to the lymph duct confluence.

Lymph nodes of head: classification, topography, areas of collecting lymph, lymph outflow path.

The lymph nodes of the neck: classification, topography, areas of collecting lymph, lymph outflow path.

 

Theme 9. Vascularization and innervation of the head and neck.

Vascularization (blood circulation, lymphatic and venous outflow) and the innervation of the head and neck: oral mucosa, soft palate, tongue, upper and lower teeth, throat, tonsils, parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gland, mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid gland, eyeball, Lacrimal gland, the external muscles of the eyeball, the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, the brain, the cerebellum, brain stem, masticatory muscles, the muscles of the face (facial) muscles, neck muscles, skin, face, temporomandibular joint.

 

Content module 16. The vessels and nerves of the body

 

Specific objectives:

- Identify the general principles of structure and function of blood vessels;

- Analyze the source and mechanism of the arteries in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of the arteries;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the arteries of the chest cavity, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity;

- Identify the general principles of structure and function of the veins;

- Analyze the source and mechanism of the veins in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variations of the veins;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the veins of the body;

- Identify the general principles of structure and function of lymphatic vessels;

- Identify the general principles of structure and function of the autonomic peripheral nervous system (autonomic nervous system);

- To analyze the source of blood supply and innervation of the chest cavity, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity.

 

Theme 10. General anatomy of blood vessels

Anatomical classification arteries. Classification arteries wall structure. Types of branching arteries. The main patterns of distribution of arteries in the human body. Arterial intersystem and intersystem anastomoses. Sources and mechanisms of the arteries. Arterial arches and their derivatives. Variations and anomalies of the great arteries.  The concept of collateral paths (bypass) flow of blood. Age features of arteries.

X-ray anatomy of the arteries.

 

Theme 11. arteries of the chest cavity, abdominal cavity 
and pelvic cavity

Aorta and its parts. Thoracic aorta: topography, classification of branches. The branches of the thoracic aorta and areas of blood supply. The internal thoracic artery (a branch of the subclavian artery): topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Intrasystem and intersystem arterial anastomoses.

The abdominal aorta: topography, classification of branches. Parietal branches of the abdominal aorta: topography, areas of blood supply. Visceral branches of the abdominal aorta: even and odd. Paired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta: topography and areas of blood supply. Odd visceral branches of the abdominal aorta: topography and areas of blood supply. Intrasystem arterial anastomoses between the branches of the abdominal aorta.

Common iliac artery: formation, topography, branches. Internal iliac artery: topography, classification of branches. Parietal and visceral branches of the internal iliac artery: topography, areas of blood supply, and intersystem intersystem arterial anastomoses.

 

Theme 12. General anatomy of the veins. Veins of the torso. Intrasystem and intersystem venous anastomoses

Anatomical classification veins. Classification by venous wall structure. Roots and tributary veins. Superficial veins, deep veins. Venous grid, venous plexus. Sources and mechanisms of the main veins. Variations and anomalies of the main veins.  Age characteristics of veins. X-ray anatomy veins.

Superior vena cava: roots, tributaries, topography.

Azygos vein: formation, topography, classification of tributaries, areas of collecting venous blood. Hemiazygos vein: formation, topography, classification of tributaries, areas of collecting venous blood. Veins of the spinal column.

Inferior vena cava: roots, topography, classification tributaries. Parietal and visceral tributaries of the inferior vena cava, venous blood collection sites.

Portal hepatic vein: roots, topography, tributaries. Superior mesenteric vein: topography, tributaries, areas of collecting venous blood. Inferior mesenteric vein: topography, tributaries, areas of collecting venous blood. Splenic vein: topography, tributaries, areas of collecting venous blood. Branching portal hepatic vein in the liver.

Common iliac vein: roots topography. Internal iliac vein: topography, tributaries. Venous plexus of the pelvic organs.

Intersystem Venous anastomoses. Venous anastomoses intersystem cava-caval anastomoses, porto-caval anastomoses and porto-caval anastomoses.

Theme 13. general anatomy of lymphatic vessels

Classification of lymph vessels. Lymphatic capillaries: the structure and function of the wall. Lymph capillary: wall structure and function. Lymphatic vessels: wall structure and function. Superficial and deep lymph vessels. Lymphatic trunks: jugular, subclavian, bronchomediastinal, lumbar, intestinal - their formation, topography, function. Lymph ducts: the thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct. The development of lymphatic vessels in embryogenesis. Variations and anomalies of the lymphatic ducts.  Age related structural features of lymphatic vessels.

Lymph nodes. Lymph nodes Chest: classification. Ways outflow of lymph from the lungs, heart and esophagus. The lymph nodes of the abdominal cavity: Classification. Lymphatic vessels and regional lymph nodes of the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, kidney, uterus, ovaries. Lymph pelvic cavity: classification. Lymph outflow tract of the pelvic organs.

 

Theme 14. Anatomy of the peripheral autonomic 
nervous system

General of the structure and function of the autonomic peripheral nervous system (autonomic nervous system). Morphological differences in the structure of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system. Morphological differences in the structure of the reflex arc of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system: morphological, functional differences between objects innervation. The centers of the autonomic nervous system in the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral division of the autonomic nervous system: autonomic nodes, nerves, autonomic plexus. Classification of vegetative nodes, their topography, and preganglionic, postganglionic nerve fibers.

The sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. Centers in the spinal cord. Sympathetic trunk: topography, classification of nodes, interstitial branches. White and gray connecting branches: formation, topography. The branches of the cervical sympathetic trunk nodes, their topography and areas of innervation. Cute roots of vegetative nodes of the head. The branches of the thoracic sympathetic trunk nodes, their topography, areas of innervation. The branches of the lumbar sympathetic trunk nodes, their topography, areas of innervation. Branches of the sacral sympathetic trunk nodes, their topography, areas of innervation.

Parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system. Cranial part: vegetative nodes of the head, their topography, roots, branches, areas of innervations. Pelvic part.

Visceral Plexus: traumatic cervical portion of the thoracic, abdominal portion of the pelvic.

Traumatic cervical part visceral plexus: plexus common carotid, internal carotid plexus external carotid plexus, subclavian plexus - their education, areas of innervation.

Thoracic part visceral plexus: breast aortic plexus, cardiac plexus, esophageal plexus, pulmonary plexus - their education, areas of innervation.

Abdominal part visceral plexus: abdominal aortic plexus: its secondary plexus, their topography and components, areas of innervation. Sources of formation, composition of fibers abdominal aortic plexus.

Pelvic plexus: superior hypogastric and inferior hypogastric plexuses. Lower hypogastric plexus: its secondary plexus, their topography, areas of innervation. Sources of formation, the composition of the lower fibers hypogastric plexus.

 

Theme 15. vascularization and innervation of the walls and the chest cavity, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity

Vascularization (blood circulation, lymphatic and venous outflow) and the innervation of the walls and the chest cavity: front, back and side walls of the chest cavity, diaphragm, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleura, heart, core of the esophagus.

Vascularization (blood circulation, lymphatic and venous outflow) and the walls and the innervation of the abdominal cavity: anterior, posterior and lateral walls of the abdominal cavity, the spinal cord, liver, gall bladder, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, ileum and empty), colon pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, spleen

Vascularization (blood circulation, lymphatic and venous outflow) and the walls and the innervation of the pelvic cavity: the walls of the pelvis, perineum, ureters, bladder, urethra, ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, external female genitalia, testicles, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external male genitalia.

 

Content module 17. The vessels and nerves of the upper and lower extremities

 

Specific objectives:

- Describe and demonstrate the vessels of the upper extremities;

- Describe and demonstrate the vessels of the lower extremities;

- Identify the general principles of structure and function of the peripheral nervous system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the somatic nerve plexus;

- To analyze the source of blood supply and innervation of the skin, muscles and joints of the upper extremity;

- To analyze the source of blood supply and innervation of the skin, muscles and joints of the lower limbs.

 

Theme 16. Vessels of the upper extremity.

Arteries of the upper limb. Axillary artery: topography, parts, branches, areas of blood supply. Brachial artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Radial artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Ulnar artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Ulnar articular network: a source of education. Dorsal carpal network: topography, sources of formation, branches, areas of blood supply. Palmar carpal network: topography, sources of education, areas of blood supply. The superficial palmar arch: topography, sources of education, areas of blood supply. The deep palmar arch: topography, sources of education, areas of blood supply. Arterial anastomoses of the upper extremity. Projections of upper extremity arteries to the skin.

The veins of the upper limb: classification. Superficial and deep veins of the upper extremity: their characteristics, patterns of topography and structure. Axillary vein: topography, tributaries.

Superficial and deep lymphatic vessels of the upper extremity. Lymph nodes of the upper limb: classification.

 

Theme 17. Vessels of the lower limbs.

The arteries of the lower limbs. External iliac artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Femoral artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Popliteal artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Front tibia artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Posterior tibial artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Articular knee mesh: source entity. Side stones network: topography, sources of education, areas of blood supply. Medial stones network: topography, sources of education, areas of blood supply. The arteries of the foot: dorsal artery of foot, lateral plantar artery medial plantar artery - their topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Arterial anastomoses of the lower limbs. The projection of the lower extremity arteries to the skin.

The veins of the lower limb: classification. Superficial and deep veins of the lower limbs: their characteristics, patterns of topography and structure. Superficial and deep lymphatic vessels of the lower limbs. The lymph nodes of the lower limb: classification.

 

Theme 18. Introduction to the peripheral nervous system. Spinal nerves. General plan of formation of somatic nerve plexus

The components of the peripheral nervous system: nerves, ganglia, nerve plexus nerve endings. General plan of the nerve. Vessel-nerve bundles. Classification nerves. Segmental distribution of peripheral nerves. Ganglia: classification. General plan of sensitive sites. Spinal nerve: formation, composition of fibers, twigs, compliance with the segments of the spinal cord. Rear branches of spinal nerves: structure of fibers, topography, general patterns of innervation. Posterior branch of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves. Forward branches of spinal nerves: structure of the fibers. General regularities of formation of somatic nerve plexus. General laws of anatomy anterior branches of thoracic nerves. How spinal nerves of the autonomic nervous system.

 

 

Subject 20. Somatic nerve plexuses: cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal. Thoracic nerves.

Cervical plexus: a wealth formation, topography, branches, areas of innervations.

Brachial plexus: a wealth formation, topography. Trunks of the brachial plexus. Classification of branches. Supraclavicular part: short branches of the brachial plexus, their topography and areas of innervation. Subclavian part: bundles of brachial plexus. Long branches of the brachial plexus: formation, topography, areas of innervation. The projection of the long branches of the brachial plexus in the skin. Topohrafoanatomical relationship between nerves and blood vessels of the upper extremities. Lumbar plexus: a wealth formation, topography, branches, areas of innervations. Sacral plexus: a wealth formation, topography, classification of branches. Short branches of the sacral plexus: topography, areas of innervation branches of the sacral plexus Long: topography, areas of innervation. Coccygeal plexus: the sources of formation, topography, branches, areas of innervations.

Thoracic nerve: branches. Intercostal nerves: topography, composition of fibers, branches, areas of innervations.

 

Theme 21. vascularization and innervation of the upper and lower extremities. Blood supply and innervation of the muscles of the back.

Vascularization (blood supply and venous drainage) and the innervation of the upper extremity joints: upper extremity joints, shoulder joint, elbow joint, wrist joint.

Vascularization (blood circulation, lymphatic and venous outflow) and the innervation of the muscles of the upper extremity: shoulder girdle muscles, shoulder muscles, forearm muscles, muscles of the hand.

Vascularization (blood supply and venous drainage) and innervation of the lower extremity joints: hip, knee, ankle joint.

Vascularization (blood circulation, lymphatic and venous outflow) and the innervation of the skin and muscles of the lower extremities: muscles of the pelvis, thigh muscles, leg muscles, muscles of the foot.

Vascularization (blood circulation, lymphatic and venous outflow) and innervation and back muscles, chest and abdomen.

 

 

4. The structure of the discipline

 

Names of content modules on topics and

Number of hours

Full-time

all

in including

Lect.

Pract.

Lab.

Sem. .

Ind. work

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Module 1. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal system

Content Module 1 - Introduction to Anatomy

Content Module 2 - Anatomy of skeleton

Content Module 3 - Connections skeletal bones and limbs.

Theme 1. Basic anatomical terms. Familiarity with the department. Anatomical nomenclature. Axes and planes. General characteristics of the skeleton. The structure of bones.

General arthrology.

10

2

6

2

Theme 2. General structure of the vertebra. Cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Sacrum, coccyx. The ribs, sternum. The combination of body bones. Vertebral column as a whole. Chest as whole.

9

6

3

Theme 3. Bones of the upper limb.

The connections of upper extremity bones.

The bones of the lower extremity.

9

6

3

Theme 4. The connections of lower extremity bones. Skull. Frontal, parietal, occipital bone. Sphenoid and ethmoid bones.

8

6

2

Theme 5. Temporal bone. Channels temporal bone. The upper and lower jaw. Maxillary sinus, its shape, structure. Facial bones of the skull.

8

6

2

Theme 6. Skull in general. The base of the skull.

Temporal, infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossa.

Eye cavity. Nasal cavity.

8

6

2

Theme 7. The connections the bones of the skull. Dissection of the joints.

4

2

2

Total for semantic modules 1, 2, 3

56

2

38

16

Content Module 4 - Myology

Theme 7. Superficial and deep muscles of back, their topography, fascia.

8

2

4

2

Theme 8. Muscles and fascia of the chest and abdomen. Topography. Aperture. Inguinal canal.

The muscles of the head and neck (classification). The fascia of the head.

Topography of the head and neck.

10

2

6

2

Theme 9. Muscles the shoulder girdle, shoulder and forearm. The muscles of the hand. Topography and fascia of the upper limb. The muscles of the pelvis, hips and legs.

8

6

2

Theme 10. Muscles of the foot. Topography and fascia of the lower limb. Dissection of muscles of the head

Dissection of muscle in different areas.

8

6

2

Total for semantic module 4

34

4

22

8

Total hours

90

6

60

24

Module 2. Splanchnology. Central nervous system and senses.

Content Module 5 - Anatomy of the digestive system

Theme 1. Mouth. Tongue, palate, salivary glands.

General structure of the teeth. The structure of the periodontum. Dental formula. The concept of the dentition segment.Permanent teeth. The structure of the upper and lower small and large molar teeth.

12

2

6

4

Theme 2. Structure of deciduous teeth. Teething. Deciduous teeth. Eruption of the teeth. Obliterate teeth. Value tooth roots from topographical lesions of the skull. Pharynx and esophagus. Stomach. Small and large intestine.

   8

6

2

Theme 3. Liver, gallbladder, pancreas. Peritoneal cavity, its elements.

6

4

2

Total for semantic module 5

26

2

16

8

Content Module 6 - Anatomy of the respiratory system

Theme 3. External nose. Nasal cavity. Larynx.

6

2

2

2

Theme 4. Trachea. Bronchi. Lungs. Pleura. Mediastinum.

4

4

Total for semantic module 6

10

2

6

2

Content Module 7 - Anatomy of the Urinary System

Theme 4. Kidneys, ureters. Urinary bladder.

4

2

2

Total for semantic module 7

4

2

2

Content Module 8 - Anatomy of reproductive system.

Theme 5. Female genitals, female urethra.

Men's genitals. Crotch.

Dissection of thoracic and abdominal cavities.

12

6

6

Total for semantic module 8

12

6

6

Content Module 9 - Anatomy of the endocrine and immune system

2

2

Total for semantic module 9

2

2

Content Module 10 - Anatomy of the spinal cord

Theme 6. Spinal cord. The outer structure. Shells spinal cord. The internal structure. Spinal nerves. Posterior branches.

10

2

2

6

Total for semantic module 10

10

2

2

6

Content Module 11 - Anatomy of the brain

Theme 6. General brain. Exit in the base of brain 12 pairs of cranial nerves.

Shells brain. Sinus of the dura mater.

6

4

2

Theme 7. Medulla oblongata. Pons. Cerebellum. IV ventricle. Rhomboid fossa. The projection of the nuclei of the cranial nerves. Isthmus of rhombencephalon brain. Midbrain. Reticular formation. Diencephalon. Neurogenic group of endocrine glands.

9

6

3

Theme 8. Forebrain: lobs, grooves and convolutions. Olfactory brain. Localization of function in the cortex of the forebrain. Basal nuclei and white matter. IV ventricles. Circulation of liquor.

9

6

3

Theme 9. Pathways. Classification: associative, commissural projection. Ascending projection pathways. Descending projection pathways.

9

6

3

Total for semantic module 11

33

22

11

Content Module 12 - Sense organs

Theme 10. Organ of vision. III, IV, VI cranial nerve.

Body of view. II pair of cranial nerves. The visual way.

Olfactory organ. I pair of cranial nerves. Olfactory way. Skin. Derived skin. Breast.

Organ of hearing. The external ear.

Middle ear. Tympanic cavity. Auditory tube.

Inner ear. VIII pair of cranial nerves. Hearing the way. Organ of taste.

8

 6

 2

Total for semantic module 12

8

 6

2

Total hours

105

 6

60

39

Module 3. Heart. The vessels and nerves of the trunk and extremities. The vessels and nerves of the head and neck.

Content Module 13 - Cranial nerves

Theme 1. Trigeminal nerve: I branch.

Trigeminal nerve: II branch.

Trigeminal nerve: III branch.

14

 2

 6

6

Theme 2. VII pair of cranial.

Intermediate nerve (XIII couple).

IX Pair of cranial nerves.

12

 6

6

Theme 3. X, XI and XII pairs of cranial nerves.

Cervical plexus. Organ of taste.

Dissection of the brain and cranial nerves.

    6

6

Total for semantic module 13

   32

    2

18

12

Content Module 14 - Anatomy of the heart

Theme 4. Large and small circulation. Heart. External and internal structure. Conductive system of the heart.

Topography of the heart. Projection valves at auscultation.

13

2

6

5

Total for semantic module 14

13

2

 6

5

Content Module 15 - The vessels of the head and neck

Theme 5. Summary and external carotid arteries.

Front, middle and posterior branches of the external carotid artery.

Terminal branches of the external carotid artery: the mandibular and superficial temporal artery.

13

2

6

5

Theme 6. Internal carotid artery. Subclavian artery. Blood supply of the brain and spinal cord. Veins of the head and neck. Pterygoid venous plexus. The lymphatic system. Spleen. Thymus. Lymphatic vessels and nodes of the head and neck. Dissection heart and blood vessels of the head and neck.

6

6

Total for semantic module 15

19

2

12

5

Content Module 16 - The vessels and nerves of the body

Theme 7. Vessels and nerves of the chest cavity. The front of the thoracic spinal nerve branches.

The abdominal aorta. Her trunk. Arteries and veins of the pelvis.

12

6

6

Theme 8. Inferior vena cava and portal. Circulation of the fetus. Porto-caval and cava-caval anastomoses.

The autonomic nervous system. Central and peripheral sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.

Dissection vessels and nerves of the cavities.

12

6

6

Total for semantic module 16

24

12

12

Content Module 17 - The vessels and nerves of the extremities

Theme 9. Arteries of upper limb, axillary and brachial arteries. The arteries of the forearm and hand. Veins, lymphatic vessels and nodes of the upper extremity. Brachial plexus: topography formation. Short branches of the brachial plexus.

Long branches of the brachial plexus.

13

6

7

Theme 10. Arteries of the lower extremities: femoral and n popliteal artery.

Arteries leg and foot.

Veins, lymphatic vessels and nodes of lower limb

Lumbar plexus. Sacral and coccygeal plexus

Dissection of vessels and nerves in the extremities.

13

6

7

Total for semantic module 17

26

12

14

Total hours

114

6

60

48

The final of control I, II and III module

6

6

Total hours

315

18

180

117

 

 

5. Topics of lectures

Number

The theme of the lecture

Number of hours

 

Module 1. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal system

 

Content Module 1 - Introduction to anatomy.

Content Module 2 - Anatomy of skeleton.

 

1

Introduction to Human Anatomy. Initial stages of human embryogenesis. General doctrine of bone.

2

 

Content Module 4 - Myology.

 

2

The general doctrine of muscle.

2

 

3

Muscles, fasciae and topography of the head and neck.

2

 

Total

6

 

Module 2. Splanchnology. Central nervous system and senses.

 

Content Module 5 - Anatomy of the digestive system.

 

 

4

Introduction to splanchnology. Anatomy of the oral cavity. General anatomy of the digestive system.

2

 

Content Module 6 - Anatomy of the respiratory system.

 

Content Module 7 - Anatomy of the Urinary System.

 

Content Module 8 - Anatomy of reproductive system.

 

5

General anatomy of the respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems.

2

 

Content Module 10 - Anatomy of the spinal cord.

Content Module 11 - Anatomy of the brain.

 

6

General anatomy of the central nervous system. The development of the dorsal nerve.

2

 

Total

6

 

Module III. Heart. The vessels and nerves of head, neck, trunk and extremities.

 

Content Module 13 - Cranial nerves.

 

7

Anatomy of cranial nerves.

2

 

Content Module 14 - Anatomy of the heart.

 

8

The general theory of the cardiovascular system.

2

 

Content Module 15 - The vessels of the head and neck.

 

9

General principles of blood supply and innervation of the head and neck.

2

 

Total

6

 

 

6. Topics of seminars - not provided

 

 

7. Topics of practical classes

Theme of the practical classes

Hours

Module 1.Anatomy of musculoskeletal system. 

Content module 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy.

Content module 2. Anatomy of bones and

Content module 3. Connections skeletal bones and limbs.

1.

 

Basic anatomic terminology. The meaning of anatomy in doctors training. Acquaintance with a department.

Anatomic nomenclature. Axis and planes. General characteristics of skeleton. The structure of bones. Periosteum.

General arthrology.

6

 

 2. 

General structure of vertebra. Cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebras.

Sacral bone, coccyx. Ribs, sternum

Connection of trunk bones. Vertebral column as the whole. Thorax as the whole.

6

3. 

Bones of upper extremity.

Connection of upper extremity bones.

Bones of lower extremity.

4.

Connection of lower extremity bones

Skull. Frontal, parietal and occipital bones. Connection of skull with vertebral column

Sphenoid and ethmoid bones.

5. 

Temporal bone. Canals of temporal bone.

Maxilla and mandible.

Maxillary sinus, its shape and structure. Small bones of facial skull.

6. 

Skull as the whole. Basis of skull.

Temporal, subtemporal and pterygopalatine fossa.

Orbit. Nasal cavity.

6

7.

Connection of skull bones.

Preparation of the bones and joints.

6

Content module 4.Myology.

 

Muscles of the back (superficial and deep). Topography and fasciae.

 

8.

Muscles and fasciae of thorax and abdomen. Topography and fasciae. Diaphragm. Inguinal canal.

Muscles of head (classification, origin, insertion, action). Fasciae of the head.

Topography of head and neck.

6

9.

Muscles of the shoulder girdle arm and forearm.

Muscles of hand. Topography and fasciae of the upper limb.

Muscles of hip, thigh and leg.

6

10.

Muscles of the foot. Topography and fasciae of the lower limb.

Preparation muscles of head.

Preparation of neck muscles.

6

Total

60

Module 2. Splanchnology. Central nervous system and organs of sense.

Content module 5. Anatomy of the digestive system.

11.

Oral cavity. Tongue, palatine, salivary glands.

Teeth, their structure. Periodont structure. Teeth formula. Notion of dento maxillary segment.

Permanent teeth. Structure of upper and lower small and big molar teeth.

6

12.

Structure of deciduous teeth. Dentition. Effacement of the teeth Correlation of teeth roots with topographical structure of the skull. Pharynx, oesophagus, stomach.

Small and large intestine.

6

13.

Liver. Gall bladder.Pancreas.

Peritoneal cavity, its elements and floors.

6

Content module 6. Anatomy of the respiratory system.

 

External nose. Nasal cavity. Larynx.

 

14.

Trachea. Bronchi. Lungs.

Pleura. Mediastinum.

6

Content module 7. Anatomy of the urinary system.

 

Kidneys, ureters. Urinary bladder.

 

Content module 8. Anatomy of the reproductive systems.

15.

Female genital organs. Female urethra.

Male genital organs. Perineum.

Preparation of thoracic and abdominal cavities.

6

Content module 9. Anatomy of spinal cord.

16.

Spinal cord. External structure. Meninges of spinal cord. Internal structure. Spinal nerves. Posterior roots.

General review of brain. Position 12 pairs of cranial nerves on the brain base

Meninges of brain. Sinuses of dura matter.

6

Content module 10. Anatomy of cerebrum.

17.

Medulla oblongata. Pons. Cerebellum. Fourth ventricle. Rhomboid fossa (nuclei of cranial nerves).

Rhomboencephalon isthmus. Midbrain. Reticular formation.

Mesencephalon. Nevrogenic group of the endocrine glands.

6

18.

Forebrain: hemisphere, sulci and gyrus. Olphactory brain. Localisation of the function in cortex of the brain.

Basal nuclei and white matter of hemispheres.

Lateral ventricles. Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

6

19.

Pathways. Classification: associative, commissural, and projective.

Ascending projective pathways.

Descending projective pathways.

6

Content module 11. Organs of sense.

20.

Organ of smell. 1st pair of cranial nerves. Smell tract. Skin. Skin derivates. Mammary gland.

Organ of vision. 2nd pair of cranial nerve. Visual tract.

Auxiliary organs of eye. 3rd, 4th, 6th cranial nerves.

Organs of hearing and equilibrium. External ear.

Middle ear. Tympanic cavity. Auditory tube.

Internal ear. 8th pair of cranial nerves. Acoustic tract.

6

Total

60

Module 3. Heart. Vessels and nerves of head, neck, trunk and extremities.

 

Content module 12: Cranial nerves.

 

21.

Trigeminal nerve: 1st division.

Trigeminal nerve: 2nd division.

Trigeminal nerve: 3rd division.

6

 

22.

7th pair of cranial nerves.

Intermedius nerve (8th pair).

9th pair of cranial nerves.

6

 

23.

10th, 11th, 12th pairs of cranial nerves.

Cervical plexus. Organ of taste.

Preparation of brain and cranial nerves.

6

 

Content module 13: Anatomy of heart.

 

24.

Pulmonary and systemic circle of blood circulation.

Heart. External and internal structure. Conducting system of the heart.

Topography of heart. Projection of valves, places of their auscultation.

6

 

Content module 14: Vessels of head and neck.

 

25.

Common and external carotid arteries.

Anterior, middle and posterior branches of external carotid artery.

Terminal branches of external carotid artery: maxillary and superficial tempporal arteries.