Form N - 3.04

SHEI "Ternopol State Medical University Horbachevsky

MOH UKRAINE"

 (Full name of university)

Department of Human Anatomy

 

 

"APPROVED"

First Pro-rector

Prof. Mysula IR

"14" June 2013

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Syllabus

STUDY SUBJECTS

Human Anatomy

 (Code and name of discipline)

Training direction                        1201 Medicine

(Code and name of the field of study)

Specialty             7.12010001 "Medicine"

(Code and name of specialty)

Faculty                       Medical

                                                         (Name of institution, faculty, department)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013 - 2014 Year

 


The work program on human anatomy

 (Name of discipline)

In the direction of 1201 Medicine,

Specialty 7.12010001 "Medicine"

 

 

Developers:

Dr. Med., professor of anatomy Gerasimyuk I Ye

Dr. Med., professor of anatomy Fedonyuk Y aI

Assistant professor of anatomy Boymystruk I I

Assistant Department of Human Anatomy Galitska-Harhalis O Ya

(Specify authors, their positions, degrees and academic titles)

 

 

 

Syllabus endorsed by the Department of Human Anatomy

 

Minutes from the "12" in June 2013 № 11

 

                         Head of the Department of Human Anatomy

 

 

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 (Gerasimyuk IE)

 (Signature)                                 (Surname and initials)     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ó __________, 2013

Ó __________, 2014


1.      Description Discipline

 

Name of indicators

Discipline, training direction, education and qualification level

Characteristic of discipline

full-time education

Credits - 14.5

Discipline

____ 1201 ___ Medicine

 (Code and name)

Normative

Modules - 3

Specialty:

7.12010001"Medicine"_

Year of training

Content modules - 17

1st

2nd

Semester

Total hours -435

1st

2nd

3rd

Lectures

Weekly hours for full-time study:

audience - 12.8

independent work of students - 8.95

Educational qualification:

specialist

8 hours

28 hours

10 hours

Practical

66 hours

96 hours

48 hours

Laboratory

Independent work

31 hours

101 hours

47 hours

Individual tasks:

 

 

Type of control:

Test control module

Test control module

 

 

 

Note.

Ratio of number of hours of classroom training and independent work is (%):

For full-time study - 65: 35

 

 

 


  1.  

2. The aims and objectives of the discipline

Objective: Human Anatomy aims to:

·                   trained physician by profession according to the power of the content module (natural-scientific training);

·                   be the basis for building the content of the discipline;

·                   mastering the structure of systems of rights;

·                   to determine anatomical preparations topographic anatomical relationship of the person;

·                   mastery of Latin terminology in accordance with international anatomical nomenclature (San Paulo, 1997);

·                   evaluation of age, sex and individual structure of organs

Objectives:

- To analyze the information about the structure of the human body, systems, organs and tissues;

- To identify of the topographic and anatomical relations of human organs and systems;

- To interpret patterns prenatal and early postnatal development of the human versions of variability and malformations;

- To interpret the gender, age and individual peculiarities of the structure of the human body;

- To provide interdependence and unity of the structures and functions of their human variability under the influence of environmental factors;

- To determine the impact of social conditions and work on the development and structure of the human body;

- To demonstrate the moral and ethical attitude to a living person and human body as an object of anatomical and clinical study.

 

Study of the discipline the student must

Know:

        All anatomical structure of the human body;

        navigate the topographic location of anatomic features and human systems;

Be able to:

        free to use anatomical terminology;

        determine the placement of certain organs and entire systems, blood vessels, nerves in the physical body;

        display and called on radiographs, CT and MRI of the body, certain organs and blood vessels;

        dissect the different parts of the physical body;


3.      Program Discipline

 

Module 1. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal system

 

Content module 1. Introduction to Anatomy

Specific objectives:

- Identify the subject and objectives of anatomy, basic anatomical methods;

- Evaluate the major trends of modern anatomy;

- Analyze stages of human anatomy as the fundamental discipline;

- To analyze the contribution of eminent scientists and anatomists of different eras in the development of the human anatomy;

- To analyze the contribution of eminent scientists and anatomists of Ukraine in the formation of the Ukrainian school of anatomists.

- Identify the main stages of embryogenesis. Analyze derivatives of each germ layers.

 

Theme 1. Subject and problems of anatomy. Research methods in anatomy. The main directions of development of modern anatomy

 

Human anatomy - the science about form and structure, origin and development of the human body, its organs and systems. Anatomy provides a systematic description of the shape, structure, and topographic relations of parts and organs of the body, taking into account their age, sex and individual characteristics.

The main directions of development of modern anatomy - Developmental anatomy, comparative anatomy plastic anatomy, anthropology, environmental and other anatomies.

Basic research methods in anatomy - a visual study, anthropometric survey preparation, macro-microscopic study microscopic study. Modern methods of research in Human anatomy: radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography (USG), endoscopy and others.

 

Theme 2. Milestones anatomy in ancient times, in the Renaissance, in the XVII-XIX centuries

Analysis of the anatomy in ancient times, in the Renaissance, in XVII-XIX centuries. The value of the works of Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, Avicenna, Andrew Vesalius, Leonardo da Vinci, V.Harvey, M.Malpihi, M.I.Pyrogov, and others.

 

Theme 3. Development of Ukrainian anatomical schools

Formation and development of Ukrainian anatomical schools.

 

Theme. 4. Kyiv anatomical school

Formation and development of Kyiv anatomical school. Contribution of M.I.Kozlov, O.P.Valter, V.O.Bets, M.A.Tyhomyrov, F.A.Stephanis, M.S.Spirov, I.I.Bobryk in development of Kyiv anatomical school and the importance of their work for the modern anatomy.

 

Theme 5. Initial stages of human embryogenesis

The doctrine of germ layers. Initial stages of embryogenesis. Germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm and their derivatives.

 

Content module 2. Anatomy of bones

 

Specific objectives:

- Use anatomical terminology to describe the bones of the skeleton, explaining their topography;

- Apply anatomical planes and axes to explain the topography of bones and their parts;

- Identify and analyze the concept of "bone as the organ";

- To analyze the mechanisms of bone development in embryogenesis;

- Apply classification of bones for analysis of the structure of the bones of the skeleton;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the bones of the trunk, skull and extremities.

 

Theme 6. Bone as an organ. Classification of bones. Bone development in embryogenesis

General information about the skeleton. The development of bone (in the phylogeny and ontogeny). Primary and secondary bone. Classification of bones. Bone as an organ. Compact and spongy bone substance, their structure. Chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties of bone. The structure and parts of a tubular bone. Features of the bone structure of bone in children, youth, mature, old and very old age. Bone X-ray image. Impact of sports and labor to build bones. The impact of social and environmental factors on the development and structure of the bones of the skeleton.

 

Theme 7. Anatomical nomenclature. Axes and planes of the body

The concept of international anatomical nomenclature. Its importance for the study of anatomy and unify the study of natural and clinical sciences. Basic anatomical terms that reveal the topography of anatomical objects and their main characteristics.

Anatomical planes (sagittal, frontal /coronal/, horizontal /axial/) and axis, their characteristics, importance for describtion the bones and their parts.

 

Theme 8. Anatomy of the bones of the trunk

The bones of the skeleton: vertebrae, ribs, sternum. Segmental principle in the structure of the axial skeleton.

Summary data on phylo - and ontogeny of the vertebral column. General characteristics of the backbone. General plan of structure of the vertebrae. Peculiarities of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae, sacral bone, coccygeal bone. Age and sex characteristics of the structure of the vertebrae. The impact of social and environmental factors on the structure of the vertebrae. Malformations vertebrae.

Development of ribs and sternum in phylo- and ontogenesis. Classification of ribs. The structure of the ribs and sternum. Forms variability ribs and sternum, variants and abnormalities. Age and sex characteristics of the structure sternum. The impact of social and environmental factors on the structure of the ribs and sternum.

 

Theme 9. Anatomy of the skull bones

Development of the skull in phylo- and ontogenesis. Neurocranium and facial skull. The structure of the bones that form the neurocranium: frontal, occipital, parietal, sphenoid, temporal, ethmoid. The structure of the bones that form the facial skull: mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, nasal, palatine, lacrimal, hyoid bone, vomer, inferior nasal concha. The calvaria, the external and the internal base of the skull. Anterior, middle and posterior cranial fossa, orbita, bony nasal cavity, temporal, infratemporal, pterygopalatine fossa. Age and sex features of skull structure. Variations and anomalies of the skull bones. Radiography of the skull.

 

Theme 10. Bones of the upper and lower extremities

Upper limb: divisions. The bones of the upper extremity: parts. Pectoral girdle: clavicle, scapula: structure. Free part of the upper limb: humerus, bones of the forearm and hand, sesamoid bones. Ossification terms of the upper limb bones. Development of bones of the upper limb in ontogeny. Variations and anomalies of the bones of the upper limb.

Lower limb: divisions. The bones of the lower extremity: parts. Pelvic girdle: hip bone, structure. Parts of the coxal bone, structure. Free part of the lower limb: structure of femur, tibia, fibula, bones of the foot. Ossification terms of bones of the lower extremity. Development of bones of the lower limb in ontogeny. Variations and anomalies of the bones of the lower extremity. Homology bones of the upper and lower extremities. Age, sex structural features of bone fractures. Specific structural features of the bones of the upper and lower limbs due to processes of anthropology. Influence of sports, work, social factors and environmental factors on the structure of the bones of the upper and lower extremities.

 

Content module 3. Articulations

Specific objectives:

- Identify and analyze the types of articulations;

- To analyze the development of articulations in phylo- and ontogenesis;

- Describe and demonstrate the articulations of the trunk;

- Describe and demonstrate the articulations of the skull;

- Describe and demonstrate the articulations of the upper extremities;

- Describe and demonstrate the articulations of the lower extremities.

 

Theme 11. Anatomy of continuous and discontinuous connections of the bones

 Development of articulations in ontogeny.

 Development of articulations in phylo- and  ontogenesis. Classification of joints. Types of synarthroses: fibrous connection (syndesmosis) - membranes, ligaments, sutures, fontanelles, cartilaginous connection (synchondroses) - permanent, temporary, hyaline, fibrous, symphysis. Synovial joints (diarthroses):  the main features of the joint, characteristic. Additional components of the joints. Classification of joints in structure, shape the articular surfaces, function. Simple, compound, complex and combined joints: their characteristics. Types of movements and their analysis (axis of movements, plane of movements). One-axial, biaxial and multi-axial, types, characteristic of movements in each type of joint.

 

Theme 12. The articulations of the trunk and skull

Classification of joints of the backbone. Syndesmosis of the backbone:  characteristics and structure. Synchondroses of the backbone: characteristics and structure. Joints of the vertebral column: median atlanto-axial joint, lateral atlanto-axial joint, intervertebral joints, lumbosacral joint, sacro-coccygeal joint: structure. The backbone as a whole. Age, gender pecularities of backbone. Influence of sports, work, social factors and environmental factors in the backbone.

Joints of the thorax: syndesmosis, synchondroses and synovial joints (costovertebral joints, costotransverse joints, sternocostal joints): characteristics and structure. Thorax as a whole, structure. Influence of sports, work, social factors and environmental factors on the structure of the thorax as a whole.

Joints of the skull: classification. Syndesmosis of skull: suturae, types and characteristics. Synchondroses of skull: types, characteristics, age features. Joints of skull: temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) and atlanto-occipital joint: their structure. Age features: fontanels, their types, structure, ossification terms.

 

Theme 13. The articulations of the upper and lower extremities

The connection of the upper extremity bones. Connections of pectoral girdle: syndesmoses of upper limb girdle and upper limb joints (sterno-clavicular joint and acromio-clavicular joint), their structure. Joints of the free upper extremity: shoulder joint, elbow, joints of the forearm, wrist, and the hand.

Articulations of the lower extremity. Articulations of the pelvic girdle: syndesmoses, pubic symphysis, the sacroiliac joint. Pelvis as a whole: structure, basic dimensions. Age, gender, individual characteristics of the pelvis. Articulations of the free lower limb: hip joint, knee, leg bones connection, ankle joint, joints of the foot. Arches of the foot.

Radiography of the upper and lower extremities articulations. Influence of sports, work, social factors and environmental factors on the structure of compounds bones of the extremities articulations.

 

Practical skills tests and training of material "Anatomy of the bones and articulations"

 

Content module 4. Myology

Specific objectives:

- Identify and analyze the concept of "muscle as the body";

- Analyze the classification of skeletal muscle topography, development, structure, shape etc.

- To analyze the development of skeletal muscle in phylo- and  ontogenesis;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fasciae of the body;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fasciae of the head and neck;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fasciae of the upper extremities;

- Describe and demonstrate the muscles and fasciae of the lower extremities.

 

Theme 14. Muscle as a organ. Classification of muscles. Development of skeletal muscle

Muscle as an organ - definition. Tendon, aponeurosis. Auxiliary aids of muscle: fascia, synovial sheath, synovial bursa, sesamoid bone, tendon arch and muscle power. Anatomical and physiological widths of muscles: basic information about the strength and muscle performance, the concept of leverage. Insertion and attachment of muscles: their functional characteristics.

Classification of muscles: the development, topography, shape, size, direction of muscle fibers, function and so on.

Development of the muscles in phylo- and  ontogenesis. Sources of the muscles of the trunk, head, neck, upper and lower extremities.

 

Theme 15. Anatomy of the muscles and fascia of the trunk

Classification of muscles of the trunk by topography, development and shape. Segmental structure of the muscles of the trunk.

Muscles of the back: superficial and deep, their characteristics. Thoraco-lumbar fascia.

The muscles of the chest: superficial and deep, their characteristics. Thoracic fascia, intrathoracic fascia.

Abdominal muscles: muscles of the anterior, lateral and posterior walls of the abdomen, their characteristics. Abdominal fascia. Linea alba. Umbilical ring. Prelum abdominale. Topography of abdomen. Inguinal canal. Vagina of rectus abdominis muscle.

Diaphragm - definition. Parts of diaphragm, apertures, content, triangles.

 

Theme 16. Anatomy of the muscles and fascia of the head and neck. Topography of the neck

Muscles of the head: classification. Masticatory muscles and their characteristics. Muscles of facial expression. Classification of face muscles and characteristics. The fascia of the head.

Muscles of the neck: classification. Superficial, middle and deep neck muscles and their characteristics. Fascia of the neck: anatomic classification and anatomical-topographical classification. Topography of the neck: areas, triangles, spaces.

 

Theme 17. Anatomy of the muscles and fasciae of the upper and lower extremities. Topography of the upper and lower extremities

Muscles of the upper limb: classification. Muscles of the pectoral girdle, characteristics. Muscles of the arm: classification, characteristics. Forearm muscles: classification and characteristics. Muscles of the hand: classification, characteristics. The fasciae of the upper limb. Axillary fossa, axillary cavity, topography, triangles, quadrilateral and trilateral openings. Humeromuscular canal. Grooves of the arm. Cubital fossa. Grooves of the forearm. Osteo-fibrous canals, retinaculum flexorum, retinaculum extensorum. Carpal canal, synovial sheath of flexor muscles tendons. Synovial bursae.

Muscles of the lower limb: classification. Muscles of the pelvic girdle: classification and their characteristics. Muscles of the of the thigh: classification and their characteristics. Muscles of the leg: classification and their characteristics. The muscles of the foot: classification and characteristics. Fasciae of lower extremity. Muscular and vascular lacunae, topography and content. Femoral triangle. Adductor canal. Popliteal fossa. Canals of leg: cruro-popliteal canal, upper and lower musculo-crural canals. Grooves of the foot. Hiatus saphenus. Femoral canal. Retinaculum flexorum, retinaculum extensorum,  retinaculum of peroneal muscles. Synovial sheath, synovial bursae and muscles of the lower limb. Mechanisms that support the arch of the foot: tightening the foot, passive (ligaments) and active (muscles).

Analysis of key positions and movements of the human body (standing, walking, running, jumping). Salient features of the structure of the motor apparatus rights acquired in connection with bipedal locomotion.

Age, sex and individual characteristics of skeletal muscles. Influence of sports, work, social factors and environmental factors on the structure of skeletal muscles of the trunk and extremities.

 

Module 2. Splanchnology.

Central nervous system and sensory organs

 

Content module 5. Anatomy of the digestive system

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the classification of internal organs;

- Determine the general plan of the structure of tubular organs and organ-evaluate structural features inherent tubular organ due to its function.

- Determine the general plan structure parenchymal organs;

- To analyze the development of the digestive system in embryogenesis;

 - Analyze anomalies and variants of the digestive system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the digestive system.

 

Theme 1. Introduction to splanchnology. Classification of internal organs. Common structural patterns of tubular organs. Common structural patterns of parenchymal organs

Classification of internal organs: tubular and parenchymal. General plan of structure of tubular wall: mucosa, muscular coat, outer coat. Characteristics of each coat. Organ-specific structural features of the mucous membranes, depending on the function of the organ. Serosa: options related organs to the peritoneum. Common structural patterns of parenchymal organs. Glands: classification, general principles of the structure, functions.

 

Theme 2. General anatomy of the digestive system. Embryogenesis of the digestive system. Anomalies and variants of the digestive system

Digestive system: organs and function. Development of the oral cavity and its derivatives. Development of the gastrointestinal tract. The development of the liver and pancreas. Primary and secondary body cavity. Sources of serous membranes. Development of the peritoneum. Structural mechanisms of defects of the mouth and its derivatives. Anomalies and variants of development of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas.

 

Theme 3. Anatomy of the oral cavity and its derivatives

Mouth: its parts. Walls of oral vestible and proper oral, communications.

Teeth. Parts of the tooth. Surface of the crown. General structure of the teeth. Periodontium, paradontium. Gums. Permanent teeth: their formula, description of each tooth. Terms eruption of permanent teeth. Milk teeth: formula, structural features, terms of eruption. Radiography of teeth. Occlusion. Development of teeth. Anomalies and variants of the teeth.

Palate: hard palate, soft palate, their structure. Tonsils. Tongue: parts. Mucosa, tongue muscles.

Mouth glands: classification, their development. Minor salivary gland: classification, topography, structure. Major salivary glands, topography, characteristics, structure, classification.

 

Theme 4. Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract

Pharynx, its topography, parts, connections. Fauces. Lymphatic (lymphoid) ring of the pharynx. The structure of the pharyngeal wall: mucosa, pharyngeal-basilar fascia, muscles of the pharynx, the outer coat.

Esophagus: topography, parts, structure, wall. Narrowing of the esophagus. Radiography of the esophagus.

Stomach: topography of the stomach. The structure of the stomach wall: structural features of the mucosa (topography, gland), muscular layer and serosa. Radiological and gastroscopic characteristic of mucosa.

Relation of the stomach to the peritoneum. Relations stomach. Variations of shape of stomach anatomy (on the corpse) and x-ray (a living person). The shape of the stomach, depending on the type of body structure. Age features of the topography and the structure stomach.

Small intestine, its departments. Duodenum: parts, topography, variations of shape and position. Radiography of the duodenum. Topography of mesenteric parts of small intestine: jejunum and ileum. The structure of the wall of the small intestine. The structure of the mucosa: intestinal villi, glands, folds, lymphatic (lymphoid) nodules. Peculiarities of the mucosa of the small intestine in various departments. The structure of the muscular coat. Relation to the peritoneum of each division of the small intestine. Age-related structural features of the small intestine.

Large intestine: departments. The structure of the wall of the large intestine: mucosa (glands, folds, lymphatic (lymphoid) nodules), tunica muscularis, serosa. Relation to the peritoneum of each part of large intestine. Cecum and appendix: topography, structural features. Variants position of the appendix, projection to the anterior abdominal wall. Colon: parts, bends, their topography, structural features of the mucous membrane and muscular coat. Relation to the peritoneum. Rectum: parts, bends, topography. Features, topography of the rectum, depending on gender. Features of the structure of the mucous membrane and muscular coat. Relation to the peritoneum. Anal canal: topography, structural features of the mucosa and muscle membranes. Sphincters of anus.

Macroscopic structural differences of small and large intestine.

Age-related features of the structure of the large intestine.

Radiography of the large intestine. The shape and position of parts of the colon in a living human.

 

Theme 5. Anatomy large digestive glands, liver and pancreas

Liver. Topography. External structure, the landmarks, topography. Relations of the liver. Relation to the peritoneum. The internal structure of the liver: lobes, segments, lobules. The vessels of the liver. The functions of the liver.

Ways of bile secretion. Gallbladder: topography, parts, wall structure, functions. The common bile duct: formation, topography.

Age features of topography and structure of the liver. Age-related features of the structure of the gall bladder.

Pancreas: parts, topography, structure, functions. Pancreatic duct. Langerhans islets.

Age features of the topography and structure of the pancreas.

 

Theme 6. Anatomy of the peritoneum

Peritoneum. Abdominal cavity and its contents. Peritoneal cavity and its contents. Parietal peritoneum, visceral peritoneum: their characterization. Variants of relation of the internal organs and peritoneum. Derivative peritoneum: mesentery, omentum, ligament - structure and function. Derivative of peritoneal cavity: bursae (hepatic, tregastric, omental - their wall and connections), sinuses, canals and recesses. Topography of the peritoneum in the pelvic cavity: sexual characteristics. Topography parietal peritoneum on the anterior, posterior wall of the abdominal cavity.

 

Content module 6. Anatomy of the respiratory system

Specific objectives:

- To analyze the development of the respiratory system in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variations of the respiratory system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the respiratory system.

 

Theme 7. General anatomy of the respiratory system. Embryogenesis of the respiratory system

Respiratory system: organs, function. The upper and lower airways. Development of the respiratory system in phylo- and  ontogenesis. Variations and anomalies of the respiratory system.

 

Theme 8. Anatomy of the respiratory organs

External nose: parts, structure. Nasal cavity: vestibule, nasal meatus, paranasal sinuses. The functional part of the nasal cavity. Nasal part of the pharynx. Age features of the nasal cavity.

Larynx. Topography. The structure of the larynx: cartilages, ligaments, joints and muscles. Elastic cone,  quadrangular membrane. Larynx: parts, their boundaries. Vocal folds, vestibular folds. Glottis. Mechanisms of phonation. Radiography of the larynx, laryngoscopy. Age features of the larynx.

Trachea: parts, topography, structure wall. The principal bronchi: topography, structure of wall. Bronchial tree. Age features of the trachea and principal bronchi.

Lungs: topography, external structure. Hilum of lungs. The root of the lungs and its components. Lobes, segments, lobules the lung. Acinus. Circulatory system of the lungs. Radiography of trachea, bronchi, lungs. Age features of the lungs.

Pleura. Parietal pleura and its topographical parts. Visceral pleura. Pleural cavity: content, recesses, their functional significance.

Projection of the pleura on the walls of the thorax.

Mediastinum: definition and limits. Organs of the anterior mediastinum. Organs of posterior mediastinum.

 

Content module 7. Anatomy of the urinary system

Specific objectives:

- To analyze the development of the urinary system in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of the organs of the urinary system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the urinary system.

 

Theme 9. General anatomy of the urinary system. Embryogenesis of the urinary system. Anomalies and variants of the urinary system

Urinary system: organs and function. Development of the urinary system in phylo- and  ontogenesis. Variations and abnormalities of the urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.

 

Theme 10. Anatomy of the urinary system

Kidney: topography of the right and left kidney. The outer structure of the kidney. The ratio of kidney to the peritoneum. Coats of kidney. Fixing apparatus of kidneys. Topography elements of renal leg. The internal structure of the kidney. Segments of kidney. Nephron - structural and functional unit of the kidney. The structure of the circulatory system of the kidney. Urinary tract. Small renal calyx, major renal calyx, pelvis, wall structure, functions. Radiography of kidney. Age features of topography and structure of the kidney.

Ureter: parts, topography, structure of wall, function. Relation to the peritoneum. Narrowing of the ureter.

Bladder: form, external structure, parts. Features topography in men and women. The structure of the wall of the bladder: structural features of the mucosa, muscle layer. Relation to the peritoneum (depending on the functional state).

Female urethra. The male urethra.

Radiography of urinary tract (ureters, bladder, urethra).

Age features of the bladder.

 

Content module 8. Anatomy of the reproductive system

Specific objectives:

- To analyze the development of the female reproductive system in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variations of the female reproductive system;

- To analyze the development of the male reproductive system in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of development of the male reproductive system;

- Describe and demonstrate on preparations structure of the internal and external female genitalia;

- Describe and demonstrate on preparations structure of internal and external male genitalia.

 

Theme 11. General anatomy of the male reproductive system. Embryogenesis of the male reproductive system. Variations and anomalies of development of the male reproductive system

Male reproductive system: organs, function. Classification of the male reproductive system. Internal male genitalia. External male genitalia. The development of the male reproductive system in phylo- and  ontogenesis. Variations and anomalies of the internal male genitals: testicle, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, the prostate gland. Variations and anomalies of the external male genitalia. Hermaphroditism.

 

Theme 12. Anatomy of the male reproductive system

Internal male genitalia. Testis: topography, structure. Epididymis. Descent of the testicles. Tunics of testicles. Ductus deferens: parts, topography, structure of wall. Spermatic cord and components. Seminal vesicles: topography, structure, functions. Ejaculatory duct. Prostate: topography, parts, structure, functions. Bulbourethral gland. Age features internal male genitalia.

External male genitalia. Scrotum. Penis, structure. Male urethra: parts, their topography, structure of wall.

 

Theme 13. General anatomy of the female reproductive system. Embryogenesis of the female reproductive system. Variants and abnormalities of the female reproductive system

Female reproductive system: organs, function. Classification of the female reproductive system. The internal female genital organs. The external female genital organs. The development of the female reproductive system in phylo- and  ontogenesis. Variations and anomalies of the internal female reproductive organs: the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina. Variations and anomalies of the external female genitalia.

 

Theme 14. Anatomy of the female reproductive system. Perineum

The internal female sex organs. Ovary: topography, external structure, internal structure, relationships ovary and peritoneum. Cyclic changes in the structure of the ovary. Age-related structural features of the ovary.

Fallopian tubes: topography, parts, wall structure, relation to the peritoneum, functions.

Uterus: topography, shape, part, structure of wall. Relations uterus related to the peritoneum, functions. Age-related features of the structure of the uterus and options for its position.

Vagina: fornix, wall structure.

Radiography of internal female genitalia.

The external female genital organs. Female pudendal area: mons pubis, major labia, minor labia, bulb of the vaginal vestibule, large vestibular gland, small vestibular gland. Clitoris. Female urethra.

Perineum: definition, topography. Urogenital diaphragm: boundaries, muscles, fasciae, sexual differences. Pelvic diaphragm: boundaries, muscles, fasciae. Ischiorectal (anorectal) fossa: boundaries, content.

 

Content module 9. Anatomy of the immune and endocrine systems

Specific objectives:

- Identify common patterns of structure and function of the central organs of the immune system (lymph or primary lymphoid organs);

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the immune system;

- Identify genaral patterns of structure and function of the endocrine system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the endocrine system.

 

Theme 15. General anatomy of the central and peripheral organs of the immune system

Immune system: functions. Classification of immune (lymphatic or lymphoid) system function. The central authorities of the immune system (primary lymphoid organs or lymph): bone marrow, thymus - structural patterns of their functions.

Peripheral organs of the immune system (lymph or secondary lymphoid organs): structural patterns of their functions.

The development of the immune system in embryogenesis.

 

Theme 16. Anatomy of the immune system

The central organs of the immune system (primary lymphatic or lymphoid organs). Red bone marrow. Yellow bone marrow. Topography, structure, functions. Age features of the bone marrow. Thymus: topography, structure, functions. Age features of the thymus.

Peripheral organs of the immune system (lymph or secondary lymphoid organs). Spleen: topography, structure, functions. Lymphatic (lymphoid) ring of pharynx: tonsils that form it, topography, structure, functions. Lymph nodes: classification, structure, functions. Solitarii lymphoid nodules: topography, structure, functions. Aggregated lymphoid nodules: topography, structure, functions. Aggregated lymphoid nodules of the appendix: topography, structure, functions. Age-related features of the structure of the peripheral immune system.

 

Theme 17. General anatomy of endocrine organs

General principles of the structure of endocrine organs. Definition of "endocrine function." Structural mechanisms of action of hormones. Classification of endocrine organs.

Development of endocrine organs in embryogenesis. Features of functional activity of endocrine organs in the prenatal period of human ontogenesis. Variations and malformations of endocrine organs.

 

Theme 18. Anatomy of the Endocrine System

Thyroid gland: topography, structure, functions.

Parathyroid gland: topography, structure, functions.

Adrenal gland: structure, functions. Topography of the right and left adrenal glands.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas: structure, function.

Pituitary gland: topography, parts, structure, functions.

The pineal gland: topography, structure, functions.

 

Content module 10. Anatomy of Spinal Cord

Specific objectives:

- Identify the general principles of the structure and function of the CNS;

- To analyze the development of the CNS in phylo- and  ontogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of the spinal cord and brain;

- Describe and demonstrate the external and internal structure of the spinal cord.

 

Theme 19. Introduction to CNS. General principles of the structure of reflex arcs. Gray and white matter of the CNS. The development of the central nervous system in ontogenesis and phylogenesis

The leading role of the nervous system in the body, its importance for the integration of the systems of the body in a single organism, in establishing the relationship of the body with the environment. Classification of nervous system according to location (central nervous system and peripheral nervous system), anatomical and functional approach (somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system). The general principle of the structure of a neuron. Morphological and functional classification of neurons. Receptors and their classification. General plan of structure of synapses. Reflex arc. Gray matter of the CNS. Glia. Principles of spatial organization of the gray matter of CNS. Nervous ganglia. White matter of the CNS. Nerve fibers, nerve bundles, roots.

Stages of development of the nervous system in phylogeny. The development of the nervous system in ontogenesis. The development of the spinal cord in embryogenesis. Brain development in embryogenesis: stage of three and five cerebral vesicles and their derivatives. Anomalies of the spinal cord. Abnormalities of brain development.

 

Theme 20. External and internal structure of the spinal cord. Structure of the spinal nerve

Topography of the spinal cord and its limits. The outer structure of the spinal cord (surface, grooves, funiculi, enlargement). Segmental structure of the spinal cord. The relation between the vertebrae and spinal cord segments (law of Shypo). The internal structure of the spinal cord, the central canal, gray and white matter. The structure of the posterior, lateral and anterior horns of the spinal cord. White matter: classification. Composition of the posterior, lateral and anterior funiculi. Own segmental apparatus of spinal cord. Sensory spinal ganglion. Anterior and posterior roots. Formation of spinal nerve trunk. Age-related structural features of the spinal cord.

 

Content module 11. Anatomy of the brain

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the classification of the brain for anatomical principles and development;

- Describe and demonstrate the external and internal structure of the brain.

 

Theme 21. Brain development in embryogenesis. Anatomy derivatives of rhombencephalon and midbrain

The brain. Parts of the brain: the forebrain, cerebellum, brainstem. Classification of the brain for development. Derivative rhombencephalon: medulla oblongata and hindbrain (pons and cerebellum).

Medulla oblongata: borders, external structure. Internal structure: gray and white matter.

Bridge: external structure. Internal structure: gray and white matter.

Cerebellum: Topography, external structure. Internal structure: gray and white matter. Composition of cerebellar peduncles.

Rhomboid fossa: formation, boundaries, topography. Projection of cranial nerves nuclei on the surface of the rhomboid fossa.

Fourth ventricle: wall and connections.

Midbrain, its parts. Lamina tecti: external structure, internal structure: the gray and white matter. Cerebral peduncles, parts, internal structure: the gray and white matter. Cerebral aqueduct.

 

Theme 22. Anatomy derivatives of forebrain

Derivative of forebrain: the diencephalon, the telencephalon.

Diencephalon: parts (dorsal - thalamencephalon, ventral part – the hypothalamus). Parts of thalamencephalon: the thalamus, epithalamus, metatalamus. Thalamus: external structure. Internal structure: nuclei and their functions. Epithalamus: parts. The pineal gland and its functions. Metatalamus: parts and their functions. Hypothalamus, components. Pituitary gland. The nuclei of the hypothalamus, their functions. Hypothalamic-pituitary system. Third ventricle: wall and connections.

Telencephalon: cerebral hemisphere. Corpus callosum, fornix, anterior commissure. Olfactory brain: parts and their components. Basal nuclei: topography, parts, functions. Pallium. Cortex of the brain: cyto- and myeloarchitectonic of cortex. Researches of V.O.Bets. The relief of the cerebral hemispheres: sulci and gyri. Morphological basis of dynamic localization of functions in the cerebral hemispheres. White matter of hemispheres: classification. Associative fiber: classification, function. Commissural fibers, their functions. Projection fibers: Classification. Internal capsule: parts, topography pathways in each part. Lateral ventricles: parts, their topography, wall, connections. Age-related features of the structure of the brain.

 

Theme 23. Pathways of Central Nervous System

Pathways - definition. Anatomical and functional classification of pathways of the central nervous system: associative pathway (short and long), commissural paths projection paths (ascending and descending). Ascending (afferent) pathways: exteroceptive, proprioceptive, interoceptive. Descending (efferent) pathways: pyramidal, extrapyramidal, cortico-pontine. Pyramidal motor system (centers, pathways). Extrapyramidal system (centers, pathways).

 

Theme 24. Meninges of spinal cord and brain. Formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid

Meninges of spinal cord. Spaces between membranes and their contents. Meninges of the brain. Dura mater. Processes of dura mater. Sinuses of dura mater. Spaces between the membranes. Formation and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.

 

Content module 12. Sense organs

Specific objectives:

- Identify the general principles of the structure and function of the sensory organs;

- To analyze the development of the sensory organs in phylo- and  ontogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of the sensory organs;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the eyeball and additional structures of the eye;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the external ear, middle ear and inner ear.

 

Theme 25. Anatomy of the sensory organs

Anatomical and functional characteristics of the sensory organs. Peripheral receptors, pathways and cortical  analyzers, their functional unity. Organ of smell. Olfactory part of the nasal mucosa. Pathways of olfactory analyzer. Organ of taste. Taste papillae of the tongue, their topography. Pathways taste analyzer.

Skin: function. Types of skin sensitivity. Mammary gland.

 

Theme 26. Eye and related structures

Filo- and ontogeny of the eye. Anomalies and variants of the eye. Eyeball: topography, structure, functions. Coats of eyeball: fibrous, vascular, inner (retina). Chambers of eyeball: anterior, posterior. Vitreous body, lens. Aqueous humor: the place of formation, circulation. Accommodative apparatus of the eye. Additional structures of the eye: eyelids, eyebrows, conjunctiva, external muscles of the eyeball, fascia of orbit. Lacrimal apparatus. Pathways of visual analyzer. Pathways of pupillary reflex.

 

Theme 27. Anatomy of the ear

Ear. Filo- and ontogenesis. Anomalies of the ear. Parts of the ear: outer, middle and inner ear. Outer ear, structural parts. Middle ear. Tympanic cavity: walls,  content. Auditiry ossicles, structure. Joints, ligaments, muscles of auditory ossicles. The communications of the tympanic cavity. Auditory tube: parts, structure. Inner ear -  topography. Bony labyrynth: vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea, their structure. Membranous labyrinth: vestibular labyrinth, semicircular ducts. The mechanism of perception and ways of sound. Pathways of hearing and balance.

 

Module 3. Heart. The vessels and nerves of head, neck, trunk and extremities

 

Content module 13. The cranial nerves

Specific objectives:

- Analyze the classification of cranial nerves.

- Identify the general principles of the structure of the cranial nerves of different origin.

- To analyze the general structure of autonomic ganglia of the head.

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the I-XII pairs of cranial nerves.

 

Theme 1. Classification of cranial nerves. General anatomy of autonomic ganglia of the head

General characteristics of the cranial nerves. Common features and differences in the structure of the cranial and spinal nerves. Classification of cranial nerves function (motor, sensory, mixed). Classification of cranial nerve origin. The development of the cranial nerves due to the sensory organs (I, II,

VIII pair), myotoms of head somites (III, IV, VI, XII pairs), gill arches (V, VII, IX, X, XI pairs). Structural differences of the cranial nerves, brain derivatives (I, II CN) from the rest of the cranial nerves. General plan of structure of motor, sensory and mixed cranial nerves. General plan of structure of autonomic ganglia of the head: roots and branches.

 

Theme 2. Anatomy of I-XII cranial nerves

Anatomy of cranial nerves: the nuclei, their localization, the output of the nerve cord, nerve branches, the composition of  fibers, topography, areas of innervation. I, II pairs of cranial nerves. IV, VI CN: output nerves from the brain, from the skull, areas of innervation. III pair of cranial nerves: nuclei, output nerve from the brain from the skull, branches, the composition of their fibers, areas of innervation, links with autonomic ganglia (ciliary ganglion). V pair of cranial nerves: intracranial part – nuclei,  ganglion, sensory and motor roots. Branches of V CN: fibers exit from the skull, areas of innervation, links with autonomic ganglia of the head. VII CN and intermediate nerve: nucleus, topography, branches, the composition of their fibers, areas of innervation. Links intermediate nerve branches with autonomic ganglia of head (pterygopalatine, submandibulars, sublingual). Anatomy of VIII CN: parts, sensitive ganglia, topography. IX pair CN: nuclei, output nerve of the brain from the skull, branches, the composition of their fibers, areas of innervation, connections with autonomic ganglia of the head (otic ganglion). X pair CN: nuclei, ganglia, exit the nerve of the brain from the skull, branches, areas of innervation. XI CN: nuclei, output nerve from the brain, from the skull, areas of innervation. XII CN: nuclei, output nerve from the brain, from the skull, areas of innervation. Autonomic ganglia of the head (pterygopalatine, ciliary, submandibular, sublingual, otic): roots and branches, areas of innervations.

 

Content module 14. Anatomy of the heart

Specific objectives:

- To analyze the development of the heart in phylo- and  ontogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variations of the heart;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the heart;

- Describe the systemic and pulmonary circulation, fetal circulation.

 

Theme 3. Introduction to the cardiovascular system

Anatomy of the heart. Systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation. Fetal circulation. General principles of the structure and function of the cardiovascular system. Components of cardiovascular system: arteries, veins, vessels of microcirculatory channel. Lymphatic vessels, the principles of their structure, function. Topography of heart. The shape, position of the heart. External structure of the heart. Chambers of the heart: structure. Heart valves. The structure of the heart wall: endocardium, myocardium, epicardium. Conducting system of the heart. Arteries and veins of the heart. Pericardium, structure, pericardial cavity, content, sinuses. Boundaries of the heart and valves on the front wall of the chest cavity. Developmental anatomy of the heart. Systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation. Fetal circulation.

 

Theme 4. The development of the heart in embryogenesis.

 Anomalies and variations of the heart

The development of the heart in the phylogeny. Stages of development of the heart in human embryogenesis. Variations and anomalies of the heart. Structural mechanisms of cardiac anomalies.

 

Content module 15. The vessels of the head and neck

Specific objectives:

- Identify the general principles of the structure and function of the cardiovascular system.

- Describe and demonstrate the arterial vessels of the head and neck.

- Describe and demonstrate the veins of the head and neck.

- Identify the lymphatic vessels and nodes of the head and neck.

- To analyze the source of blood supply and innervation of the head and neck.

 

Theme 5. Arterial vessels of the head and neck

Aorta, parts of the aorta. Aortic arch and its branches. Common carotid artery: topography, branches. Features of right and left common carotid arteries. External carotid artery: topography, classification of branches. The branches of the external carotid artery: topography, areas of blood supply. The internal carotid artery: parts, their topography. The branches of the internal carotid artery: topography, areas of blood supply. Subclavian artery: parts, their topography. Features of right and left subclavian artery. The branches of the subclavian artery: topography, areas of blood supply. Blood supply of the brain and spinal cord. Arterial circle of the brain. Intersystem arterial anastomoses in the region of the head and neck.

 

Theme 6. Venous vessels of the head and neck

Internal jugular vein: formation, topography, classification tributaries. Intracranial tributaries, extracranial tributaries of the internal jugular vein. Pterygoid plexus: topography, formation. Anastomoses between intracranial and extracranial tributaries internal jugular vein. External jugular vein: formation, topography, tributaries. Anterior jugular vein: formation, topography, tributaries. Jugular venous arch: topography, formation. Brachiocephalic vein: roots, topography, tributaries. Superior vena cava: roots, topography, tributaries.

 

Theme 7. Anatomy of the lymph trunks and lymph ducts

Thoracic duct: roots, topography, tributary, confluence with venous system. Right lymphatic duct: roots, topography, confluence with venous system.

 

Theme 8. Anatomy of the lymph vessels and nodes of the head and neck

Jugular trunks: formation, topography, land collecting lymph confluence to the lymph ducts.

Lymph nodes of the head: classification, topography, land collecting lymph, lymph drainage ways.

Lymph nodes of the neck: classification, topography, land collecting lymph, lymph drainage ways.

 

Theme 9. Vessels and innervation of the head and neck

Vessels (arterial blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage) and innervation of the head and neck: oral mucosa, soft palate, tongue, upper and lower teeth, pharynx, tonsils, parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gland, mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid gland, eyeball, lacrimal gland, the external muscles of the eyeball, the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, the brain, the cerebellum, brainstem, meninges of brain, masticatory muscles, facial muscles, neck muscles, skin, face, temporomandibular joint.

 

Content module 16. The vessels and nerves of the trunk

Specific objectives:

- Identify the general principles of the structure and function of blood vessels;

- Analyze the source and mechanism of the arteries in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of the arteries;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the arteries of the thorax, abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity;

- Identify the general principles of the structure and function of the veins;

- Analyze the source and mechanism of the veins in embryogenesis;

- Analyze anomalies and variants of the veins;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the veins of the body;

- Identify the general principles of the structure and function of lymphatic vessels;

- Identify the general principles of the structure and function of the autonomic peripheral nervous system;

- To analyze the source of blood supply and innervation of the thorax, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity.

 

Theme 10. General anatomy of blood vessels

Anatomical classification arteries (paracardiac, trunk, extraorgan and intraorgan). Classification of arteries according to wall structure. Types of arteries branching. Key patterns of frterial distribution arteries in body. Arterial intersystem and intrasystemic anastomoses. Sources and mechanisms of developmtnt of arteries. Arterial arches and their derivatives. Variations and anomalies of the great arteries. Works of M.A.Tyhomyrov. Vessels of microcirculatory channel, structure and function of walls. Sources and mechanisms of vascular microcirculatory channel. Works of human anatomy department of NMU Bogomolets. Organospecific microcirculatory channel. The concept of collateral paths (bypass) of blood. Age features of arteries. Radiography of arteries.

 

Theme 11. The arteries of the thorax, abdominal cavity

 and pelvic cavity

Aorta and its parts. Thoracic aorta: topography, classification of branches. The branches of the thoracic aorta and area of supplying. Internal thoracic artery (a branch of the subclavian artery): topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Intersystem and intrasystemic arterial anastomoses.

The abdominal aorta: topography, classification of branches. Parietal branches of the abdominal aorta: topography, areas of blood supply. Visceral branches of the abdominal aorta: odd and paired. Paired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta: topography and areas of blood supply. Odd visceral branches of the abdominal aorta: topography and areas of blood supply. Intersystem arterial anastomoses between the branches of the abdominal aorta.

Common iliac artery: formation, topography, branches. Internal iliac artery: topography, classification of branches. Parietal and viscera branches of the internal iliac artery: topography, areas of blood supply, internal and intersystem arterial anastomoses.

 

Theme 12. General anatomy of the veins. The veins of the trunk. Intersystem and intrasystemic venous anastomoses

Anatomical classification veins (paracardiac, trunk, extraorgan, intraorgan). Classification veins according to structure of the wall. Roots and tributary of veins. Superficial veins, deep veins. Venous plexus. Sources and mechanisms of the main veins developmetn. Variations and anomalies of the main veins. Works of M.A.Tyhomyrov. Age features of veins. Radiography of veins.

Superior vena cava: roots, tributaries, topography. Azygos vein: formation, topography, classification of tributaries, areas of collecting venous blood. Hemiazygos vein: formation, topography, classification of tributaries, areas of collecting venous blood. Veins of the spinal column.

Inferior vena cava: roots, topography, classification tributaries. Parietal and visceral tributaries of the inferior vena cava, venous blood collection sites.

Portal hepatic vein: roots, topography, tributaries. Superior mesenteric vein: topography, tributaries, areas of collecting the  venous blood. Inferior mesenteric vein: topography, tributaries, areas of collecting venous blood. Splenic vein: topography, tributaries, areas of collecting venous blood. Branching of portal hepatic veins in the liver.

Common iliac vein: roots topography. Internal iliac vein: topography, tributaries. Venous plexus of the pelvis. Venous intersystem anastomoses. Venous anastomoses: cava-caval anastomoses, porto-caval anastomoses and cava-porto-caval anastomoses.

 

Theme 13. General anatomy of the lymphatic vessels

Classification of lymph vessels. Lymphatic capillaries: wall structure and function. Lymph postcapillars: wall structure and function. Lymphatic vessels (intraorgan and extraorgan): wall structure and function. Superficial and deep lymph vessels. Lymphatic trunks: jugular, subclavian, broncho-mediastinal, lumbar, intestinal - their formation, topography, function. Lymph ducts: the thoracic duct, right lymphatic duct. Development of lymph vessels in embryogenesis. Variations and anomalies of the lymphatic ducts. Work of Kyiv anatomical school. Age-related structural features of lymphatic vessels.

Lymph nodes. Lymph nodes of the thorax: classification. Ways lymph drainage from the lungs, heart, esophagus. Lymph nodes of the abdominal cavity: classification. Lymphatic vessels and regional lymph nodes of the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, kidney, uterus, ovaries. Lymph pelvic cavity: classification. Ways of lymph drainage from the pelvic organs. Superficial and deep lymphatic vessels of the upper extremity. Lymph nodes of the upper limb: classification. Ways of lymph drainage from the breast. Superficial and deep lymphatic vessels of the lower limbs. Lymph nodes of lower limb: classification.

 

Theme 14. Anatomy of an autonomic part of the peripheral nervous system

General regularities of the structure and function of the autonomic peripheral nervous system (autonomic nervous system). Morphological differences of the structure of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system. Morphological differences in the structure of the reflex arc of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system: morphological, functional differences, objects of innervation. Centers autonomic nervous system in the brain and spinal cord. Peripheral division of the autonomic nervous system: autonomic ganglia, nerves, autonomic plexus. Classification of autonomic ganglia, their topography, preganglionic and postganglionic nerve fibers.

The sympathetic part of autonomic nervous system. Centers in the spinal cord. Sympathetic trunk: topography, classification of ganglia, interganglionic branches. White and gray communicating branches: formation, topography. The branches of the cervical sympathetic trunk ganglia, their topography and areas of innervation. Sympathetic roots of autonomic ganglia of the head. Branches of the thoracic sympathetic trunk ganglia, their topography, areas of innervation. Branches of the lumbar sympathetic trunk ganglia, their topography, areas of innervation. The branches of the sacral sympathetic trunk ganglia, their topography, areas of innervation.

Parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Cranial portion: autonomic ganglia of the head, their topography, roots, branches, areas of innervations. Pelvic part. Visceral plexuses: craniocervical part, thoracic part, abdominal part and pelvic part.

Craniocervical part: common carotid plexus, internal carotid plexus, external carotid plexus, subclavian plexus - their formation, areas of innervation.

Thoracic part: thoracic aortic plexus, cardiac plexus, esophageal plexus, pulmonary plexus - formation, areas of innervation.

Abdominal part: abdominal aortic plexus: its secondary plexuses, their topography and ganglia, areas of innervation. Sources of formation, composition of fibers abdominal aortic plexus.

Pelvic part of visceral plexus: superior hypogastric plexus, inferior hypogastric plexus. Inferior hypogastric plexus: its secondary plexuses, their topography, areas of innervation. Sources of formation, composition of fibers inferior hypogastric plexus.

 

Theme 15. Vessels and innervation of organs and the walls of the thorax, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity

Vessels (arterial blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage) and innervation of the walls and viscera of the thorax: anterior, posterior and lateral walls of the thorax, diaphragm, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleura, heart, pericardium and esophagus.

Vessels (arterial blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage) and innervation of the wall and viscera of the abdominal cavity: anterior, posterior and lateral walls of the abdominal cavity, spinal cord, liver, gallbladder, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, empty and ileum), large intestine ,pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, spleen.

Vessels (arterial blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage) and innervation of the walls and and viscera of the pelvic cavity: the walls of the pelvis, perineum, ureter, bladder, urethra, ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, external female genitalia, testes, ejaculatory ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate, external male genitalia.

 

Content module 17. The vessels and nerves of the upper and lower extremities

Specific objectives:

- Describe and demonstrate the vessels of the upper extremities;

- Describe and demonstrate the vessels of the lower extremities;

- Identify the general principles of the structure and functions of the peripheral nervous system;

- Describe and demonstrate the structure of the somatic nerve plexus;

- To analyze the source of blood supply and innervation of the skin, muscles and joints of the upper extremity;

- To analyze the source of blood supply and innervation of the skin, muscles and joints of the lower limb.

 

Theme 16. The vessels of the upper extremity

Arteries of the upper limb. Axillary artery: topography, parts, branches, areas of blood supply. Brachial artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Radial artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Ulnar artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Ulnar articular rete: sources, formation. Dorsal carpal arc: topography, sources of formation, branches, areas of blood supply. Palmar carpal rete: topography, sources of formation, areas of blood supply. Superficial palmar arch: topography, sources of formation, areas of blood supply. Deep palmar arch: topography, sources of formation, areas of blood supply. Arterial anastomoses of the upper extremity. Projections of the upper extremity arteries to the skin.

The veins of the upper limb: classification. Superficial and deep veins of the upper extremity: their characteristics, patterns of topography and structure. Axillary vein: topography, tributaries.

 

Theme 17. The vessels of the lower extremity

Arteries of the lower limb. The external iliac artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Femoral artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Popliteal artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Anterior tibial artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Posterior tibial artery: topography, branches, areas of blood supply. Articular patellar rete: source, formation. Lateral malleolar rete: topography, sources of formation, areas of blood supply. Medial malleolar rete: topography, sources of formation, areas of blood supply. Arteries of the foot: dorsal pedis artery, lateral plantar artery, medial plantar artery - topography, branches, areas of blood supply.

Arterial anastomoses lower extremity. Projection of lower extremity arteries to the skin.

The veins of the lower extremities: classification. Superficial and deep veins of the lower extremity: their characteristics, patterns of topography and structure.

 

Theme 18. Introduction to the peripheral nervous system. Spinal nerves. General plan of formation of somatic nerve plexus

Components of the peripheral nervous system: nerves, ganglia, nerve plexus, nerve endings. General plan of structure of the nerve. Vascular and nerve bundles. Classification of nerves. Segmental distribution of peripheral nerves. Ganglia: classification. General plan of structure sensory ganglia. Spinal nerve: formation, composition of fibers, branches, compliance to the segments of the spinal cord. Dorsal branches of spinal nerves: structure of fibers, topography, the general pattern of innervation. Dorsal branches of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves. Anterior branches of spinal nerves: structure of fibers. General regularities of formation of somatic nerve plexus. General laws of anterior branches of thoracic nerves. Connection of spinal nerves of the autonomic nervous system.

 

Theme 20. Somatic nerve plexuses: cervical, brachial, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal. Thoracic nerves

Cervical plexus: sources of formation, topography, branches, areas of innervation.

Brachial plexus: source formation, topography. Trunks of the brachial plexus. Classification of branches. Supraclavicular part: short branches of brachial plexus, their topography and areas of innervation. Infraclavicular part: cords of brachial plexus. Long branches of the brachial plexus: formation, topography, areas of innervation. Projection of long branches of the brachial plexus on the skin. Topografic and anatomical relationship between nerves and blood vessels of the upper extremities. Lumbar plexus: source formation, topography, branches, areas of innervation. Sacral plexus: source formation, topography, classification of branches. Short branches of the sacral plexus: topography, areas of innervation. Long branches of sacral plexus: topography, areas of innervation. Coccygeal plexus: sources of formation, topography, branches, areas of innervations.

Thoracic nerve: branches. Intercostal nerves: topography, composition of fibers, branches, areas of innervation.

 

Theme 21. Vessels and innervation of the upper and lower extremities. Blood supply and innervation of muscles of the back

Vessels (arterial blood supply and venous drainage) and innervation of the upper extremity joints: joints of pectoral girdle, shoulder joint, elbow joint, wrist joint.

Vessels (arterial blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage) and innervation of muscles of the upper extremity: shoulder girdle muscles, arm muscles, muscles of the forearm and muscles.

Vessels (arterial blood supply and venous drainage) and innervation of the lower extremity joints: hip, knee, ankle joints. Vessels (arterial blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage) and innervation of the skin and muscles of the lower extremities: muscles of the pelvis, thigh muscles, leg muscles, muscles of the foot.

Vessels (arterial blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage) and innervation and of muscles of back, thorax and abdomen.

 

 

4. The structure of the discipline

 

Names of content modules on topics and

Number of hours

Full-time

all

in including

Lect.

Pract.

Lab.

Sem. .

Ind. work

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Module 1. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal system

Content Module 1 - Introduction to Anatomy

Content Module 2 - Anatomy of bones

Theme 1. Anatomy and Medicine. Familiarity with the department. Anatomical Terminology. Axes, planes of the human body. The skeleton of the trunk (general information). The structure of the vertebrae. Peculiarities of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Peculiarities of the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae. The spine as a whole.

11

2

6

3

Theme 2. Structure of the ribs and sternum. Thorax as a whole. Formation and establishment of the chest. The structure of the clavicle and scapula. Humerus, forearm, wrist. Their formation. General information about the skull. Occipital, parietal and frontal bones. Sphenoid and ethmoid bones.

10

2

6

2

Theme 3. Temporal bone.

The upper jaw. Palatine bone.

Nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, bone. Inferior turbinate, vomer, mandible. Hyoid bone.

8

6

2

Theme 4. Skull in general. The vault and base of skull. Bone palate. Temporal, Infratemporal, pterygopalatine fossa. Eye hole. Nasal cavity. Age-and gender-structure of the skull. The dimensions of the skull.

8

6

2

Theme 5. Pelvic and femur. Patella.

The bones of the lower leg and foot. Features of the structure in terms of age.

8

4

4

Total for content modules 1, 2

45

4

28

13

Content Module 3 - Articulations.

Theme 5. Species compound bone joints.

2

2

Theme 6. Pairing vertebrae to each other and to the skull. The combination of skull bones: joints, ligaments, temporo-mandibular joint.

The combination of edges of the vertebrae and sternum. The combination of upper extremity bones, shoulder joint.

Elbows. The combination of the forearm bones. The wrist joint. The combination of hand bones.

13

2

6

5

Theme 7. Combination pelvic bones. Basin as a whole. The most important dimensions of the female pelvis. Hip joint and knee joint.

The combination of lower leg bones. Ankle joint. The combination of foot bones.

Practical problems on preparation of bones and joints.

11

6

5

Total for content module 3

26

2

14

10

Content Module 4 - Myology

Theme 8. General anatomical and physiological data on muscle. Peculiarities of the musculoskeletal system in the age aspect. Superficial and deep muscles of the back and neck. The fascia of the back.

The chest. The muscles of the chest. Aperture. Abdomen. The abdominal muscles, their formation in the age aspect.

10

2

6

2

Theme 9. Vagina rectus abdominis muscle. White line.  Inguinal Canal, abdominal and other weak spots of the walls of the abdomen. The muscles of the neck and head. Topography and fascia of the neck and head.

8

6

2

Theme 10. Muscles of the shoulder girdle and upper arm. Axillary fossa. The muscles of the forearm and hand. Topography of the upper extremity, fascia sheath synovial bags and upper extremity.

8

6

2

Theme 11. Muscles of the pelvis, thigh, leg and foot.

Topography of the lower extremity. The fascia sheath synovial bags and lower extremity.

8

6

2

Total for content module 4

34

2

24

8

Total hours

105

8

66

31

Module 2. Splanchnology. Central nervous system and senses. The vessels and nerves of the head and neck.

Content Module 5 - Anatomy of the digestive system

Theme 1. Digestive system. Their formation in the postnatal period. Mouth and its division, the structure of the walls.

The construction of permanent and primary teeth.

Structure and function of the tongue and the glands of the mouth. Features of the structure in terms of age.

The formation, development and function of the pharynx and esophagus in the postnatal period.

Features of the structure, topography and function of the stomach in children and adults.

Structure, topography and function of the small intestine.

20

2

6

12

Theme 2. Structure, topography and function of the liver and pancreas in the age aspect.

Colon, their structure, topography and function.

Structure and topography of the peritoneum in children.

10

6

4

Theme 3. Peritoneum adults. Formation communication, ripples, and bags. 

Practical problems on preparation of the digestive system.

8

4

4

Total for content module 5

38

2

16

20

Content Module 6 - Anatomy of the respiratory system

Theme 3. Respiratory. Features of the structure in childhood. Structure and function of the nose.

7

2

2

3

Theme 4. Structure of the larynx, trachea. Their development and function of topography and age characteristics

Structure, topography and function of the lungs and pleura. Mediastinum and its contents. X-ray films digestive and respiratory systems.

8

4

4

Total for content module 6

15

2

6

7

Content Module 7 - Anatomy of the Urinary System

Theme 4. Urinary organs. External and internal structure of the kidney. Nephron - structural and functional unit of the kidney. Blood supply. Shell kidney, its topography.

8

2

2

4

Theme 5. Adrenal gland. The structure and topography of the ureters and bladder.

2

2

Total for content module 7

10

2

4

4

Content Module 8 - Anatomy of reproductive system

Theme 5. Male genital organs. The structure of the testis and its appendages. Ductus deferens. Seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbourethral gland.

The external male genitalia. Spermatic cord. Shell testicles. The structure of the male urethra. Topography of the pelvic organs in males.

10

2

4

4

Theme 6. Female genital organs. The structure, location and function of the ovary. Uterus, its development, form, part, structure, topography. Fallopian tubes. The structure and topography of the vagina, external female genitalia and female urethra. Topography of the pelvic organs in women. The muscles and fascia of the perineum in men and women. X-ray film.

16

2

6

8

Total for content module 8

26

4

10

12

Content Module 9 - Anatomy of the immune and endocrine systems

Theme 7. Anatomy of the endocrine system. Anatomy of the immune system.

Practical skills in preparation of internal organs.

16

2

6

8

Total for content module 9

16

2

6

8

Content Module 10 - Anatomy of the spinal cord

Theme 8. Spinal cord. Shape, topography. Shell spinal cord. Simple and complex reflex arc. Spinal cord: the internal structure. The structure of the lower surface of the brain. Topography of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves.

19

2

6

11

Total for content module 10

19

2

6

11

Content Module 11 - Anatomy of the brain

Theme 9. Anatomy of the brain stem. Medulla oblongata, its external and internal structure. The construction of the bridge. Reticulated formation.

Cerebellum and its external and internal structure. Nuclei, legs, their combination, composition. Isthmus rhomboid brain. The fourth ventricle.

Topography of cranial nerves nuclei in the rhomboid fossa. Midbrain. 

16

4

6

6

Theme 10. Diencephalon. The structure of the thalamus, epithalamus, metatalamus. Hypothalamus. Vegetative nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pineal body and brain appendage. Third ventricle. Forebrain. Sulci and gyri of superolateral surface of hemisphere. Areas of the cerebral cortex. Insula

Median sagittal section of brain. Sulci and gyri of medial and lower surfaces of hemisphere

14

2

6

6

Theme 11. Limbic system. Structure of white matter. Corpus callosum, fornix. Lateral ventricles. Basal nuclei

Pathways of the brain and spinal cord (associative, commissural, projective). Ascending pathways

Descending pyramidal, exrapyramidal pathways. Topography of pathways on section of spinal cord.

Membranes of the brain. Dural sinuses, spaces. Circulation of spinocerebral fluid. Blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord

12

2

6

4

Total for content module 11

42

8

18

16

Content Module 12 - Sense organs

Theme 12. Organ of sight. Structure of eyeball tunics. The refractory media of eyeball. Chambers of eye. Function of the lens. Visual analyzer pathways. Accessory structures of the eye: orbital fascia, eyebrows, eyelids, conjuctiva. Lacrimal apparatus

Organs of hearing and equilibrium. Structure of outer and middle ear

Structure of internal ear. Hearing analyzer pathways. Organs of smell and taste, pathways. Structure of skin

17

2

6

9

Total for content module 12

17

2

6

9

Content Module 13 - The vessels of the head and neck

Theme 13. System common carotid artery. Neurovascular bundle of the neck. The external carotid artery and its branche. Terminal branches of the external carotid artery: maxillary and superficial temporal arteries, topography distribution of branches.

Cervical portion of the sympathetic trunk. Cervical plexus.

Lymphatic vessels and nodes of the neck and head.

The system of internal jugular vein. Superficial veins of the neck.

11

2

6

3

Theme 14. Internal carotid artery. The blood vessels of orbit.

5

2

3

Total for content module 13

16

2

8

6

Content Module 14 - Cranial nerves

Theme 14. I, II, III, IV, VI pairs of cranial nerves, areas of distribution. I branch V pairs of cranial nerves, part of its distribution. Ciliary node.

10

2

4

4

Theme 15. A second branch V pairs of cranial nerves, areas of distribution and the related autonomic nodes of the head. The third branch V pairs of cranial nerves, area of distribution and the related autonomic nodes of the head. VII, XI and XII pairs of cranial nerves.

10

6

4

Theme 16. VIII, IX cranial nerves

Cranial and cervical parts of vagus nerve.

Practical skills on brain and spinal cord, organs of sense, vessels of head and neck preparations.

6

6

Total for content module 14

26

2

16

8

Total hours

225

28

96

101

Module 3. Heart. The vessels and nerves of the trunk and limbs

Content Module 15 - Anatomy of the heart.

Theme 1. Anatomy of the heart (I): the location and structure of the heart, anatomy of the heart chambers. Large and small circulation.

Anatomy of the heart (II): the structure of the wall of the heart, blood flow to the heart. Pericardium. The projection of the heart on the front wall of the chest cavity.

Thoracic aorta: topography, parietal and visceral branches. The system of the superior vena cava.

25

2

6

11

Total for content module 15

25

2

6

11

Content Module 16 - The vessels and nerves of the body.

Theme 2. Lymphatic vessels and nodes of thoracic viscera and walls. Thoracic and right lymphatic ducts

Thoracic part of sympathetic trunk and thoracic division of vagus. Intercostal nerves. Innervation of vicsera and walls of thorax

Abdominal aorta. Parietal  and visceral branches.

13

2

6

5

Theme 3. System of inferior vena cava. Common and external iliac arteries and veins

System of hepatic portal vein. Systemic and porto-systemic anastomoses. Circulation of blood of foetus and new-born

Internal iliac arteries and veins.

13

2

6

5

Theme 4. Lymphatic vessels and nodes of abdomen and pelvis

Lumbar part of sympathetic trunk and abdominal division of vagus. Autonomic plexus of abdomen

Pelvic part of sympathetic trunk. Pelvic division of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic plexus of pelvis

11

6

5

Total for content module 16

37

4

18

15

Content Module 17 - The vessels and nerves of the upper and lower extremities.

Theme 5. Subclavian and axillary arteries and veins. Lymphatic nodes of armpit

Brachial, ulnar and radial arteries, topography and branches on arm, forearm and hand

Superficial and deep veins, lymphatics of upper extremity

13

2

6

5

Theme 6. Brachial plexus, composition, topography, distribution of short branches.

Vascular-nervous fascicle of armpit

Long branches of brachial plexus, topography and distribution of branches on arm, forearm and hand.

13

2

6

5

Theme 7. Topography and distribution of branches of femoral and popliteal arteries. Arteries of leg and foot.

Anastomoses between the arterial branches of lower extremity

Superficial and deep veins and lymphatic nodes and vessels of lower extremity.

11

6

5

Theme 8. Lumbar spinal nerves. Lumbar plexus: composition, topography, distribution of branches

Sacral and coccygeal spinal nerves. Sacral and coccygeal plexus.

Practical skills ‘anatomy of vessels and nerves of trunk and extremities.

6

6

Total for content module 17

43

4

24

 

 

15

Total hours

105

10

48

 

 

41

The final of control I, II and III module

6

 

 

 

 

6

Total hours

435

46

210

 

 

179

 

 

5. Topics of lectures

 

Theme of the lectures

Hours

Module 1.Anatomy of musculoskeletal system. 

Content module 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy.

Content module 2. Anatomy of bones.

Content module 3.Articulations.

1.

Introduction to Human Anatomy. Initial stages of human embryogenesis

2

2.

General osteology

2

3.

General artrology

2

Content module 4.Myology.

4.

General myology

2

Total

8

Module 2. Splanchnology. Central nervous system and organs of sense. Vessels and nerves of head and neck 

Content module 5. Anatomy of the digestive system.

5.

Introduction to splanchnology. General anatomy of the digestive system

2

Content module 6 - Anatomy of the respiratory system

6.

General anatomy of the respiratory system

2

Content module 7 - Anatomy of the Urinary System

7.

General anatomy of the urinary system

2

Content module 8 - Anatomy of reproductive system

8.

General anatomy of the female reproductive system

2

9.

General anatomy of the male reproductive system

2

Content module 9 - Anatomy of the immune and endocrine systems

10.

General anatomy of immune system

2

11.

General anatomy of the endocrine system.

2

Content module 10 - Anatomy of the spinal cord

12.

Introduction to central nervous system. Anatomy of Spinal cord.

2

Content module 11 - Anatomy of the brain

13.

Anatomy of the Metencephalon and Mesencephalon

2

14.

Anatomy of Forebrain derivatives

2

15.

Pathways of the brain and spinal cord

2

Content module 12 - Sense organs

16.

Anatomy of sensory organs

2

Content module 14 - Cranial nerves

17.

Anatomy of cranial nerves

2

Content module 13 - The vessels of the head and neck

18.

Vascularity and innervation of head and neck

2

Total

28

Module 3. Heart. The vessels and nerves of the trunk and limbs

Content module 15 - Anatomy of the heart.

21.

Functional anatomy of heart

2

Content module 16 - The vessels and nerves of the body.

Content module 17 - The vessels and nerves of the upper and lower extremities.

22.

Functional anatomy of blood vessels

2

23.

Functional anatomy of lymphatic system

2

24.

General anatomy of the peripheral nervous system

2

25.

General anatomy of the autonomic nervous system

2

Total

10

 

6. Topics of seminars - not provided

 

 

7. Topics of practical classes

 

Theme of the practical classes

Hours

Module 1.Anatomy of musculoskeletal system. 

Content module 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy.

Content module 2. Anatomy of bones.

1.

 

Anatomy and medicine. Department of Human Anatomy TSMU, scientific achievement. Acquaintance with a department. Anatomic terminology. Axes, planes of human body. Skeleton of trunk (general data). Structure of vertebra.

Structural features of cervicaland thoracic vertebrae.

Structural features of vertebrae lumbar, sacrum and coccyx. Backbone as the whole.

6

 

 2. 

Structure of ribs and sternum. Thorax as the whole. Formation of the thorax. Structure of clavicle and scapula. Bones of arm, forearm, hand.

General data about a skull. Occipital, parietal and frontal bones.

Sphenoid and ethmoid bones.

6

3. 

Temporal bone.

Maxilla. Palatine bone.

Nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, bones. Inferior nasal concha, vomer, mandible. Hyoid bone.

6 

4.

Skull as the whole. Calvaria and basis of skull. Bony palatine. Temporal, infratemporal, pterygopalatine fossae.

Orbit. Nasal cavity.

Structural features of skull depending on age and gender. Sizes of skull.

6 

5. 

Hip and femur. Patella.

Bones of leg and foot. Features of their structure in an age aspect.

Types of Articulations, structure of joints.

6 

Content module 3.Articulations.

6. 

Аtlantooccipital and atlantoaxial joints. Joints of skull bones: suturae, ligaments, synchondrosis, temporomandibular joint.

Articulations of ribs with vertebrae and sternum. Articulations of shoulder girdle bones, shoulder joint.

Elbow joint. Articulations of forearm bones. Carpometacarpeal joint. Articulations of the hand.

6

7.

Articulation of pelvic bones. Pelvis as a whole. Important sizes of female pelvis. Hip joint and knee joint

Articulation of leg bones. Ankle joint. Articulations of the foot.

Practical skills Osteology and Artrosyndesmology

6

Content module 4.Myology.

8.

General anatomic and physiological data about muscles. Structural features of the muscular system in an age aspect. Superficial and deep Muscles of the back and occipital region. Fasciae of the back

Thoracic area. Muscles of thorax. Diaphragm.

Abdominal area. Abdominal muscles

6

9.

Sheath of rectus abdominis muscle. Linea alba. Inguinal Canal and other weak points of abdominal wall.

Muscles of neck and head.

Topography and fasciae of neck and head.

6

10.

Muscles of shoulder girdle and arm. Armpit.

Muscles of forearm and hand.

Topography of upper extremity, fasciae of synovial bursae and sheaths of upper extremity.

6

11.

Muscles of pelvis, thigh, leg and foot.

Topography of lower extremity. Fasciae, synovial bursae and sheaths of lower extremity.

Practical skills on senses“Myology

6

Total

66

Module 2. Splanchnology. Central nervous system and organs of sense. Vessels and nerves of head and neck 

Content module 5. Anatomy of the digestive system.

12.

Organs of digestion. Postnatal development. Mouth cavity, walls and communications. 

Structure of permanent and milk teeth.

Tongue, salivary glands. Their age features.

Development, structure and function of pharynx and esophagus.

Stomach, structure and topography.

Structure and function, topography of small intestine.

6

13.

 

Structure, topography and function of liver and pancreas.

Structure, topography and function of large intestine.

Structure and topography of peritoneum, relations with organs.

6

14.

Ligaments, mesenteries and bursae of perіtoneum in adults.

Practical skills on digestive organs preparations.

6

Content module 6. Anatomy of the respiratory system.

 

Respiratory organs. Structure and function of nose.

 

15.

Structure of the larynx and trachea. Development, topography, age peculiarities.

Structure, topography and function of lungs and pleura. Mediastinum, its contents. Radiograph   anatomy of digestive and respiratory organs.

6

Content module 7. Anatomy of the urinary system.

 

Urinary organs. External and internal structure of kidney. Nephron morphological and functional unit of kidney. Blood supplying. Capsules and topography of kidney.

 

16.

Adrenal glands. Structure and topography of urether and urinary bladder.

6

Content module 8. Anatomy of the reproductive systems.

 

Male reproductive organs. Structure of testis and epididimis. Spermatic ducts and accessory reproductive glands.

External reproductive organs. Spermatic cord. Layers of scrotal wall. Structure of masculine urethra. Topography of small pelvis organs on male.

 

17.

Female reproductive system. Structure, position and function of ovary. Uterus – development, shape, parts, structure and topography. Uterine tubes.

Structure and topography of vagina, external reproductive organs and urethra. Topography of small female pelvic organs.

Muscles and fasciae of male and female Perineum. Radiograph anatomy of urinary and reproductive organs.

6

Content module 9. Anatomy of immune and endocrine organs.

18.

Anatomy of endocrine system organs.

Anatomy of immune system organs.

Practical skills on respiratory, urinary, reproductive and endocrine organs preparations.

6

Content module 10. Anatomy of spinal cord.

19.

Spinal cord, shape, topography. Membranes of the spinal cord. Reflex arcs

Spinal cord (internal structure)

Base of brain. Topography of 12 cranial nerves

6

Content module 11. Anatomy of cerebrum.

20.

Anatomy of brainstem. Medulla oblongata (external and internal structure). Pons. Reticular formation

Cerebellum (external and internal structure, nuclei and peduncles). Isthmus rhomboencephali. Fourth ventricle

Rhomboid fossa (topography of cranial nerves nuclei). Midbrain: tectum, cerebral peduncles, cerebral aqueduct

6

21.

Diencephalon. Structure of thalamus, epithalamus, metathalamus. Hypothalamus. Pineal body and hypophysis. Third ventricle

Forebrain. Sulci and gyri of superolateral surface of hemisphere. Areas of the cerebral cortex. Insula

Median sagittal section of brain. Sulci and gyri of medial and lower surfaces of hemisphere

6

22.

Limbic system. Structure of white matter. Corpus callosum, fornix. Lateral ventricles. Basal nuclei

Pathways of the brain and spinal cord (associative, commissural, projective). Ascending pathways

Descending pyramidal, exrapyramidal pathways. Topography of pathways on section of spinal cord.

Membranes of the brain. Dural sinuses, spaces. Circulation of spinocerebral fluid. Blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord

6

Content module 12. Organs of sense.

23.

Organ of sight. Structure of eyeball tunics. The refractory media of eyeball. Chambers of eye. Function of the lens. Visual analyzer pathways. Accessory structures of the eye: orbital fascia, eyebrows, eyelids, conjuctiva. Lacrimal apparatus

Organs of hearing and equilibrium. Structure of outer and middle ear

Structure of internal ear. Hearing analyzer pathways. Organs of smell and taste, pathways. Structure of skin

6

Content module 13. Vessels of head and neck.

24.

Common carotid artery. Vascular nervous bundle of the neck. External carotid artery, neck branches. Terminal branches of external carotid artery: maxillary and superficial temporal arteries, topography distribution of branches.

Cervical division of sympathetic trunk. Cervical plexus.

Lymphatic vessels and nodes of the head and neck.

System of internal jugular vein. Superficial veins of the neck

6

Content module 14. Cranial nerves. 

25.

Internal carotid artery. Blood vessels of orbit

I, II, III, IV, VI cranial nerves, areas of distribution

I division of V cranial nerve, areas of distribution. Ciliary ganglion

6

26.

II division of V cranial nerve, areas of distribution. Autonomic ganglia of the head

III division of V cranial nerve, areas of distribution. Autonomic ganglia of the head

VII, XI and XII cranial nerves

6

27.

VIII, IX cranial nerves

Cranial and cervical parts of vagus nerve.

Practical skills on brain and spinal cord, organs of sense, vessels of head and neck preparations.

6

Total

96

Module 3. Heart. Vessels and nerves of trunk and extremities.

 

Content module 15. - Anatomy of heart.

 

28.

Anatomy of the heart I: location and structure of heart, anatomy of chambers. Systemic and pulmonary circulation Anatomy of the heart II: structure of heart wall, blood supplying and innervation of the heart. Pericardium. Projection of heart on the front thoracic wall

Thoracic part of aorta: topography, parietal and visceral branches. System of superior vena cava

6

 

Content module 16. - Vessels and nerves of the trunk.

 

29.

Lymphatic vessels and nodes of thoracic viscera and walls. Thoracic and right lymphatic ducts

Thoracic part of sympathetic trunk and thoracic division of vagus. Intercostal nerves. Innervation of vicsera and walls of thorax

Abdominal aorta. Parietal  and visceral branches

6

 

30.

System of inferior vena cava. Common and external iliac arteries and veins

System of hepatic portal vein. Systemic and porto-systemic anastomoses. Circulation of blood of foetus and new-born

Internal iliac arteries and veins.

6

 

31.

Lymphatic vessels and nodes of abdomen and pelvis

Lumbar part of sympathetic trunk and abdominal division of vagus. Autonomic plexus of abdomen

Pelvic part of sympathetic trunk. Pelvic division of the parasympathetic nervous system. Autonomic plexus of pelvis

6

 

Content module 17. - Vessels and nerves of upper and lower extremities.

 

32.

Subclavian and axillary arteries and veins. Lymphatic nodes of armpit

Brachial, ulnar and radial arteries, topography and branches on arm, forearm and hand

Superficial and deep veins, lymphatics of upper extremity

6

 

33.

Brachial plexus, composition, topography, distribution of short branches.

Vascular-nervous fascicle of armpit

Long branches of brachial plexus, topography and distribution of branches on arm, forearm and hand

6

 

 

34.

Topography and distribution of branches of femoral and popliteal arteries. Arteries of leg and foot.

Anastomoses between the arterial branches of lower extremity

Superficial and deep veins and lymphatic nodes and vessels of lower extremity

6

 

35.

Lumbar spinal nerves. Lumbar plexus: composition, topography, distribution of branches

Sacral and coccygeal spinal nerves. Sacral and coccygeal plexus.

Practical skills ‘anatomy of vessels and nerves of trunk and extremities.

6

 

Total

48

 

 

8. Topics laboratory - not provided

 

 

9. Independent work

 

Theme

Hours

Module 1.Anatomy of musculoskeletal system. 

Content module 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy.

1.

The main stages of anatomy in ancient times, in the Renaissance, in the XVII - XIX centuries.

1

2.

Development of Ukrainian anatomical schools.

2

Content module 2. Anatomy of bones.

3.

Anatomical nomenclature. Axes and planes of the body.

2

4.

Anatomy of the bones of the body.

2

5.

Analysis of X-ray, CT, MRI skeletal bones.

2

6.

Anatomy of the bones of the upper and lower extremities.

2

7.

Anatomy of the skull bones.

2

Content module 3.Articulations.

8.

Anatomy of fibers and synovial joints between bones. Development of connections between the bones in ontogeny.

2

9.

Analysis of X-ray, CT, and MRI joints bones of the lower extremity.

2

10.

The connection between the bones of the upper and lower extremities.

2

11.

Analysis of X-ray, CT, and MRI bone joints of the upper limb.

2

12.

The connection between the bones of the body and between the bones of the skull.

2

Content module 4.Myology.

13.

Anatomy of the muscles and fascia of the body.

2

14.

Anatomy of the muscles and fascia of the head and neck. Topography of the neck.

2

15.

Anatomy of the muscles and fascia of the upper and lower extremities.

2

16.

Topography of the upper and lower extremities. Analysis of CT, MRI musculoskeletal system.

2

Total

31

Module 2. Splanchnology. Central nervous system and organs of sense. Vessels and nerves of head and neck.

Content module 5. Anatomy of the digestive system.

1.

Anatomy of the oral cavity and its derivatives.

4

2.

Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract.

4

3.

Anatomy large digestive glands, liver and pancreas.

4

4.

Anatomy of the peritoneum.

4

5.

Analysis of CT, MRI of the digestive system.

5

Content module 6. Anatomy of the respiratory system.

6.</