Theme. Organ of sight. Structure of eyeball tunics. The refractory media of eyeball. Chambers of eye

 Accomodation of the lens. Visual analyzer pathways. Accessory structures of the eye: orbital fascia, eyebrows, eyelids, conjuctiva. Lacrimal apparatus. Organs of hearing and equilibrium. Structure of outer and middle ear. Structure of internal ear. Hearing analyzer pathways. Organs of smell and taste, pathways. Structure of skin

Aіm: Study the structural and topographical peculіarіtіes of organs of vision and smell, their location and innervating. Auxiliary organs of eye, their location and main functions, structure of hearing organs, their location and main functions. To learn the structure of skin and its derivatives, mammary gland, organ of taste and taste pathway.

The professіonal orіentatіon. The bony roof and floor of the tympanic cavity may be very thin, so that infection of the middle ear may penetrate through them. Through the roof, the infection may progress to the meninges and brain (meningitis, cerebral abscess in the temporal lobes), and through the floor into the internal jugular vein (jugular thrombosis).

Knowledge the organisation of vision organs is the base for understanding of neurophysiology and neuropathology. Anatomical peculiarities of the second pair of cranial nerves are necessary for neurological therapy and surgery in brain and facial region, also for traumatology and oncology. Knowledge about the eyelids, eyeball coats and lacrimal apparatus is the base for understanding of neurophysiology and neuropathology. Anatomical peculiarities of the auxiliary organs of eye are necessary for ophthalmology, neurological therapy and surgery in brain, also for traumatology and oncology.

Knowledge the organisation of the mammary gland is the base for understanding of physiology and pathology. Anatomical peculiarities of the organ of taste and taste pathway are necessary for neurological therapy and surgery in brain.

Base level of knowledge and skіlls

1.     Structure of brain.

2.     Structure of skull.

3.     Structure of orbit.

4.     Structure of temporal bone.

5.     Structure of tongue.

I.                  I. Practical work  – 9:00-12:00 am (4 hours)


1)    Іllustratіve materіal

1.     Skull, temporal bone

2.     Dissected temporal pyramid

3.     Preparations of brain

4.     Preparations of tongue

5.     Model of eyeball

6.     Preparations of eyeball


2)    Methods of practical work.

Work 1. Section of head, on the base of brain find the optic nerve, optic chiasma and optic tracts. Teacher pays attention to vision centres and their relationships with the brain and optic analyser.

Work 2. Students draw optic pathway, indicate that filaments which are crossed and which are not crossed.

Work 3. Students have to draw the way of the pupillar reflex and accommodation.

Work 4. On the preparation of orbit students by means of the teacher study an additional device of eyeball. Indicate defensive role of eyelids. On the humid preparations and also by means of tables eye muscles are studied. Students show the walls of eyelet on the skull.

Work 5. On the skull and tables to study lacrymal gland,  lacrymal lake, lacrymal sac and nasolacrymal channel.

Work 6. On the preparation of skull students under the teacher’s direction find a tympanic cavity, study its walls .

Work 7. Study the construction of auditory ossicles  of  middle ear, a joint between them. Pay attention to muscles direct the traffic of auditory ossicles  and also on functions, which execute to ossiculi.

Work 8. On the corpse show an external ear and its component parts, parts of external hearing meatus, bends of external tympanic meatus.

Work 9. Preparation of internal ear. Students under the direction of teacher reveal the pyramid of temporal bone, finding a cochlea, vestibule, semicircular  channels.

Work 10. Making a membranous labyrinth scheme.

Work 11. On the humid preparations of tongue find fungiformis, vallate,  foliate papillae.

Work 12. Students must to draw scheme of  gustatory  way, cortical analyser of taste.

Work 13. On the corps show the derivatives of skin, pay attention to skin’s functions, particularities of mammary gland’s construction and direction of mammary moves.

Work 14. On the preparation of eyeball students study a shape, poles, equator  of eyeball. Teacher pays attention to particularities of structure of coats and nucleus.


·    Practical skills and abilities of students, demonstrate on preparations:

1.     Eyeball.

2.     Coats of eyeball.

3.     Optic nerve.

4.     Optic chiasma

5.     Cortical vision centre.

6.     External ear: auricle, external acoustic meatus

7.     tympanic cavity

8.     auditive ossicula

9.     Location of 8th cranial nerve.

10.           Cortical acoustic centre.

11.           Palpebrae (eyelids)

12.           Nasolacrimal canal?

13.           olfactory regions

14.           olfactory tract

15.                     tongue papillae

II Seminar discussion 12:30 am – 14:00 pm (2 hours)


What do Eustachian tubes communicate?

A.   Larynx and pharynx

B.   Oropharynx and tympanic cavity

C.   Larynx and tympanic cavity

D.   Nasopharynx and tympanic cavity

E.    Laryngeal pharynx and oropharynx

Which muscle responsible for Accommodation of the lens?

A.   Sphincter pupillae

B.   Dilator pupillae

C.   Ciliary

D.   Rectus superior

E.   Oblique superior

Which muscle responsible for reaction of eye on bright light?

A.   Sphincter pupillae

B.   Dilator pupillae

C.   Ciliary muscle

D.   Rectus superior

E.   Oblique superior

Which muscle responsible for reaction of eye on darkness?

A.   Rectus superior

B.   Oblique superior

C.   Sphincter pupillae

D.   Dilator pupillae

E.    Ciliary muscle


·    Discussion of theoret

ical questions:

1.     What parts does vision organ compose of?

2.     Describe poles, axes, of eyeball?

3.     Which coats of eyeball do you know?

4.     Which parts do they distinguish in fibrous tunic of bulbus oculi? Importance

5.     Which parts do they distinguish in vascular tunic of bulbus oculi?

6.     Name muscles of vascular tunic, their location and function.

7.     Structure and importance of iris. What is pupil?

8.     Structure and importance of ciliary body.

9.     Structure and importance of retina.

10.           Structure of eyeball interior.

11.           Name the eyeball chambers, their borders and contains.

12.                     What is receptor of vision analisator represented by?

13.           What is receptor of vision analisator represented by?

14.           Optic nerve, its location and membrane

15.           Where is there optic chiasma, why is it incomplete?

16.           What forms after optic chiasma?

17.           Which formations form subcortical vision centres?

18.           Name cortical vision centre.

19.           Which parts represent organ of hearing and balance?

20.           What parts belong to external ear?

21.           How is structured auricle?

22.           Which parts does external acoustic meatus consist of?

23.           What shape of external acoustic meatus, their practical importance?

24.           Structure of tympanic membrane.

25.           Which parts belong to middle ear?

26.           Where is located tympanic cavity?

27.           Which walls are there in tympanic cavity?

28.           Which bones are located in tympanic cavity? Their connections and function.

29.           Which muscles regulate moving of auditive ossicula?

30.           Structure and importance of auditive tube.

31.           Where are located hearing receptors?

32.           Location and parts of 8th cranial nerve.

33.           Where are located nuclei of 8th cranial nerve?

34.           Which formations form subcortical acoustic centres?

35.           Name cortical acoustic centre.

36.           Describe auditory pathway.

37.           Describe olfactory analisator pathway.

38.           Describe vision analisator pathway.

39.           What belong to auxiliary organs of eye?

40.           How are structured the palpebrae (eyelids)?

41.           Name the parts of lachrymal apparatus.

42.           Where is located lacrimal gland, its structure?

43.           Where is located lacrimal saccus, its structure?

44.           Where is located nasolacrimal canal?

45.           Name muscles of bulbus oculi?

46.           Describe the function of bulbus oculi muscles?

47.           Describe the origins and insertions of bulbus oculi muscles?

48.           How many neurones does olfactory pathway have?

49.                     How many neurones does vision pathway have?

50.           Where are located olfactory regions, first and second neurones of the olfactory tract?

51.           Where do olfactory nerves enter the cranial cavity?

52.           What does belong to peripheral part of rhinencephalon?

53.           Where are located second neurones of the olfactory tract?

54.           Where is positioned cortical centre of rhinencephalon?

55.                     Which tracts connect peripheral and central parts of rhinencephalon?

56.           Which layers does skin consist of?

57.           Name the derivatives of the skin.

58.           Mammary gland, it’s structure

59.           Where are positioned caliculi gustatorii?

60.           Which cranial nerves innervate caliculi gustatorii?

61.           Where is located cortical centre of taste sensory analisator?

62.           Describe taste analisator pathway.

63.                     How many neurones does taste pathway have?

ІІІ. Independent students work   14:15pm – 15:00 pm

а) basic


1.     Atlas of Human Anatomy/ Frank H. Netter,- 5  edition, - 2011 by Saunders, an Imprint of Elsevior Inc.

2.     Gray's Anatomy for Students: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 2e, - 2010. 2092 p.  Richard L. Drake Ph.D, A. Wayne Vogl, Adam W.M. Mitchell, – Printed in Canada.

3.      Materials preparation for lectures

4.     Materials preparation for practical classes

    b) additional

1.     Human anatomy & physiology /Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn., San Francisco : Benjamin Cummings, c2010., 8th ed.

2.     F.H. Netter. Atlas of Human Anatomy. – Cіba Pharmaceutіcals Dіvіsіon, 1994. – 514 p.

3.     Synelnіkov R.D. The atlas of anatomy of the man. Іn 4-th volumes. -: Medіcіna, 1991.

4.     Reminetskyy B.Y., Fedonyuk Y.I. Human anatomy. Notes. 136 p.

5.     Lectures.


Methodical instructions have been prepared by:

The instruction was discussed and confirmed at the department meeting

12.06.2013. Protocol number 11


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