LESSON #21 (6 HOURS)
Theme. Diencephalon. Structure of thalamus, epithalamus, metathalamus. Hypothalamus. Third ventricle. Forebrain. Sulci and gyri of superolateral surface of hemisphere. Areas of the cerebral cortex. Insula. Median sagittal section of brain. Sulci and gyri of medial and lower surfaces of hemisphere
Aim: To learn the structure of diencephalon and III ventricle. To study the structure of forebrain and localion of the functional areas in cortex of the brain.
Professional orientation of the students. Data concerning structure of the diencephalon, especially topography of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei and functional centres is the base for studying physiology of nervous processes, neuropathology and oncology. Knowledge the localisation of the functional areas in cortex of the brain is necessary for neurological therapy. Anatomical peculiarities of the localisation of cortical centres are base for understanding of neurophysiology and neuropathology, also in traumatology.
Base level of knowledge and sk³lls
1. Lat³n term³nology.
2. Structure of Skull.
3. Structure of brainstem.
1. Preparation of brainstem.
2. Preparation of cerebellum.
3. Plate ‘Functional areas on cerebral cortex’.
I. Practical work – 9:00-12:00 am (4 hours)
1) Methods of practical work.
Task 1. On preparations study structures, which form diencephalon. Examine the walls and junctions of the III ventricle.
Task 2. Draw schematically the pituitary body and its connection with hypothalamus.
Task 3. Preparation of the encephalon. Laminate and ablate at first dura mater, then arachnoidea mater and at last pia mater on the macropreparation of encephalon. Find longitudinal slit, which divides cerebral hemispheres and transverses slit, which separates the hemispheres from cerebellum. Show poles and edges of cerebral hemispheres. Pay attention to the main furrows which divide the hemispheres to the parts. Carefully draw apart the edges of the lateral cerebral fissure and demonstrate the insular. Pay attention to the furrows and dorsolateralis encephalon surface gyri.
Task 4. Preparation of the sagittal section of the encephalon. On the encephalon macropreparation without mater, drawing apart the edges of longitudinal slit, do the section across the encephalon commissure — body callosum, anterior, posterior and fornicis commissure, intertalamica adhesion.
Task 5. The preparation of the saggital section of an encephalic brain without a cerebellum. For the demonstration of the location of the centers at the low and medium surfaces to separate the part of the column together with the part of the cerebellum on the macropreparation of the saggital section of the encephalon of the left hemisphere. Make a section on the edge between medium and intermediate brains. Draw the location of the functions concerning the parts and brains of the dorsolateral and medium surfaces of the hemispheres of the encephalon by colourful Indian ink.
2) Practical skills and abilities of students, demonstrate on preparations:
1. Saggital section of the brainstem: thalamus (pulvinar, anterior tuberculum of the thalamus, stria medullar), (medial and lateral corpus geniculatum), epithalamus (corpus pineale).
2. Section of the thalamus: thalamus nuclei (anterior, ventro-lateral, medial and posterior nusclei).
3. Hypothalamus: corpus mamillare, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, hypophysis, visual tract, optic chiasma, terminal lamina, sulcus hypothalamicus, nuclei of the hypothalamus.
4. Third Ventricle: its 6 walls (2 lateral: anterior, posterior, superior and inferior), structures which forms walls. Vessels of the ventricle III, posterior comissura, foramen interventricular, adhesio interthalamica, recessus infundibuli and opticus.
5. Transverse and longitudinal fissures of brain. Superolateral surface of brain, central sulcus, lateral sulcus (ascending and posterior branches). Frontal pole, precentral sulcus and helix. Superior and interior frontal sulcus, superior, medial and inferior frontal sulcus. Temporal lobe: Temporal polus, superior and inferior Temporal sulcus, superior, medial and inferior and also transverse gyrus. Occipital lobe: Occipital polus, transverse occipital gyrus. Parietal lobe, postcentral sulcus and gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal and angular sulcus. Insula: operculum, long and short, circular and central sulci of insula. Medial surface of hemisphere. Lower surface of hemisphere.
II. Seminar discussion 12:30 am – 14:00 pm (2 hours)
In which lobe visual cortex located:
Where is cortical hearing area located:
What does form lower wall of III ventricle
L Thalamus (upper surface)
M Thalamus (medial surface)
What does form lateral wall of III ventricle
Q Thalamus (upper surface)
R Thalamus (medial surface)
2) Discussion of questions:
1. Thalamus, external structure.
2. Thalamus, internal structure, function.
3. Epithalamus, structures, function.
4. Hypothalamus, structure, function.
5. Metathalamus, structure, role.
6. III Ventricle, location, forward and upper walls, communications.
7. III Ventricle, location, back, down and side walls, communications.
8. Which sulci are situated on lateral surface of frontal lobe?
9. Which gyri are situated on lateral surface of frontal lobe?
10. Which sulci are situated on lateral surface of parietal lobe?
11. Which gyri are situated on lateral surface of parietal lobe?
12. Which sulci are situated on lateral surface of temporal lobe?
13. Which gyri are situated on lateral surface of temporal lobe?
14. Which sulci are situated on medial surface of hemisphere?
15. Which gyri are situated on medial surface of hemisphere?
16. Which sulci are situated on lower surface of hemisphere?
17. Which gyri are situated on lower surface of hemisphere?
18. Which sulci and gyri are situated on surface of insula?
19. Which functional areas in cortex of the brain do you know?
20. Topography of motor fields.
21. Location of “motor homunculus”.
22. Eye-motor field.
23. Motor speech area (Broca’s).
24. Graphic centre.
25. Somatotopic organization of the postcentral region.
26. Auditory region. Heshl’s transverse temporal gyri.
27. Stereognosy center.
28. Praxia center.
29. Visual cortex.
²²². Independent students work – 14:15pm – 15:00 pm
1. Atlas of Human Anatomy/ Frank H. Netter,- 5 edition, - 2011 by Saunders, an Imprint of Elsevior Inc.
3. Materials preparation for lectures
4. Materials preparation for practical classes
2. F.H. Netter. Atlas of Human Anatomy. – C³ba Pharmaceut³cals D³v³s³on, 1994. – 514 p.
3. Syneln³kov R.D. The atlas of anatomy of the man. ²n 4-th volumes. -: Med³c³na, 1991.
4. Reminetskyy B.Y., Fedonyuk Y.I. Human anatomy. Notes. 136 p.
The instruction was discussed and confirmed at the department meeting
25.06.2012. Protocol number 11