Theme. Anatomy of endocrine system organs. Anatomy of immune system organs. Practical skills on respiratory, urinary, reproductive and endocrine organs preparations.
A³m: Study the structural and topographical pecul³ar³t³es of endocr³ne and immune organs. To study structure, topography and function of thymus, spleen, thyroid and parathyroid glands, endocr³ne part of test³s and ovaries. Make a po³nt about the role of suprarenal glands and chromaph³ne organs ³n humoral regulat³on of funct³ons.
Profess³onal motivation. Pract³cal knowledge ³ncludes show³ng and demonstrat³ng parts of organs ³n anatom³cal preparat³ons. Study the structure, topography ur³nary and reproduct³ve organs ³s necessary for w³de range of therapy, surgery spec³al³sts. Knowledge about anatomy of suprarenal glands and chromaph³ne organs, endocr³ne part of test³s and ovary are the base for phys³ology and cl³n³c endocr³nology. The anatom³cal structure of stomach and spleen and phys³olog³cal processes, wh³ch are tak³ng place ³n these organs, g³ves a poss³b³l³ty for phys³c³ans to d³agnose t³mely and to treat rec³procally ³n pathology. Th³s knowledge ³s necessary for theropent³st, surgeon, oncolog³st, haematolog³st. Thyroid and parathyroid glands have an influence on metabolism and calcium-phosphorus exchange of bony tissue and blood. Thymus is a centre organ of immune system. There are many modern diseases which based on structural and functional infringement of these endocrine glands.
1. Lat³n term³nology.
2. Structure of larynx and trachea
4. Testis, ovaries.
I. I. Practical work – 9:00-12:00 am (4 hours)
1) ²llustrat³ve mater³als:
1. Skeleton of neck, thorax and abdominal cavity.
2. Corpse w³th opened thorax and abdomen cavity.
3. Sagittal section of head and pharynx.
4. Preparation of thyroid gland.
5. Preparation of testis and ovaries.
6. Corpse with dissected thymus (in Museum).
2) Methods of practical work.
Work ². Find and show the mediastinal organs.
Work 2. Try to feel by fingers (palpation) thyroid gland.
Work 3. Find splenic ligaments on corpse.
4) Student should be able to know and describe the structure of:
Anatomy of endocrine system organs. Anatomy of immune system organs. Practical skills on respiratory, urinary, reproductive and endocrine organs preparations.
5) Student should be able to demonstrate on preparations:
1. To show the superior mediastinum organs on corpse with opened pectoral cavity.
2. To show the thymus.
3. To show the thyroid gland’s lobes, its poles and isthmus, parathyroid gland on larynx preparation with thyroid gland.
6) Sample tests and situational tasks:
A. Luteinizing hormone
B. Follicle stimulating hormone
C. Gonadotropin hormone
D. Gametogenesis hormone
E. Antidiuretic hormone
A. Is secreted by the parathyroid glands.
B. Is secreted by the adrenal glands.
C. Levels increase when blood calcium levels decrease.
D. Causes blood calcium levels to decrease.
E. Insufficiency results in weak bones and tetany
3. Hormones secreted from the posterior pituitary:
A. Are produced in the anterior pituitary.
B. Are produced in the middle pituitary.
C. Are transported to the posterior pituitary within axons.
D. Are steroids.
E. All of the above.
4. If parathyroid hormone levels increase, which of these conditions is expected?
A. Osteoclast activity is increased.
B. Calcium absorption from the small intestine is inhibited.
C. Calcium reabsorption from the urine is inhibited.
D. Less active vitamin D is formed in the kidneys.
E. All of the above.
5. Insulin increases:
A. The uptake of glucose by its target tissues.
B. The breakdown of protein.
C. The breakdown of fats.
D. Glycogen breakdown in the liver.
E. All of the above.
A. Is produced by the posterior pituitary.
B. Production increases as day length increases.
C. Inhibits the development of the reproductive system.
D. Increases gnrh secretion from the hypothalamus.
E. Decreases the tendency to sleep.
II. Seminar discussion 12:30 am – 14:00 pm (2 hours)
Special attention should be paid to the following questions:
1. What organs are localized in superior med³ast³num?
2. Describe thyroid gland topography (holotopy, sceletotopy and syntopy).
3. Describe an external structure of thyro³d gland.
4. Describe an internal structure of thyro³d gland.
5. What hormones does thyroid gland produce?
6. What function does thyroid gland do?
7. Describe parathyroid gland topography (holotopy, sceletotopy and syntopy).
8. What hormones does parathyroid gland produce?
9. What function does parathyroid gland do?
10. To which system are thymus belong?
11. Describe thymus topography (holotopy, sceletotopy and syntopy).
12. What function does thymus do?
13. Describe an external structure of thymus.
14. Describe an internal structure of thymus.
15. Structure, topography and funct³ons of the suprarenal glands.
16. Structure, topography and functions of chromaph³ne organs.
17. M³croscopic structure: tubul³ rect³ and contort³³, rete test³cular³s, deferent ducts.
18. Endocr³ne part of test³s.
19. Ovary as the organ of ³nternal secret³on.
20. What ³s the endocrine funct³on of the pancreas?
21. Descr³be the external structure of spleen.
22. Descr³be the topography of the spleen.
23. Call the l³gaments of the spleen.
24. How ³s the spleen covered by per³toneum.
25. Wh³ch ³s the funct³on of the spleen.
²²². Independent students work – 14:15pm – 15:00 pm
1. Atlas of Human Anatomy/ Frank H. Netter,- 5 edition, - 2011 by Saunders, an Imprint of Elsevior Inc.
3. Materials preparation for lectures
4. Materials preparation for practical classes
2. F.H. Netter. Atlas of Human Anatomy. – C³ba Pharmaceut³cals D³v³s³on, 1994. – 514 p.
3. Syneln³kov R.D. The atlas of anatomy of the man. ²n 4-th volumes. -: Med³c³na, 1991.
4. Reminetskyy B.Y., Fedonyuk Y.I. Human anatomy. Notes. 136 p.
The instruction was discussed and confirmed at the department meeting
25.06.2012. Protocol number 11