Theme. 1. Female reproductive system. Structure, position and function of ovary. Uterus – development, shape, parts, structure and topography. Uterine tubes.
2. Structure and topography of vagina, external reproductive organs and urethra. Topography of small pelvis organs on female.
3. Perineal muscles and fasciae on male and female. Radiograph anatomy of urinary and reproductive organs.
A³m: To study funct³onal pecul³ar³t³es of female reproductive organs. Study the funct³onal pecul³ar³t³es of structure of per³neum ³n male and female. To recognise urinary and reproductive organs on radiographs.
Profess³onal orientation of students: Study the structure and topography of female gen³tal organs and urethra ³s necessary for therapy and surgery ³n gynaecology, obstatry. Knowledge about anatomy endocr³ne part of ovar³es ³s the base for phys³ology and cl³n³c endocr³nology. The female genital organs consist of an internal and an external group. The internal organs are situated within the pelvis, and consist of the ovaries, the uterine tubes, the uterus, and the vagina. The external organs are placed below the urogenital diaphragm and below and in front of the pubic arch.
Study the structure per³neum ³n male and female ³s necessary for surgery ³n gynaecology, abstaetry and urology. The perineum corresponds to the outlet of the pelvis. Its deep boundaries are — in front, the pubic arch and the arcuate ligament of the pubis; behind, the tip of the coccyx; and on either side the inferior rami of the pubis and ischium, and the sacrotuberous ligament. Knowledge about anatomy of pelv³c d³aphragm and ²sch³orectal fossa ³s the base for phys³ology and cl³n³c proctology.
I. Practical work – 9:00-12:00 am (4 hours)
1) Work 1. Preparing of ovary.
Cut an ovary in frontal plane on two parts on humid preparation. To determine cortex and medulla matters.. To find the immature ovules in cork layer, which are present in small vesicles of primary follicle. Try to find and show corpus luteum.
Work 2. Uterus preparing.
To fix humid uterus preparation and make a frontal cut through uterus cavity by scalpel. After front wall separation find and show uterus and uterus cavity parts, palmate folds in uterus neck channel and external uterine opening on uterus cervix.
Work 3. Preparing of ischiorectal fossa.
To make a skin cut from left ischial tuber to right one on humid pelvis preparation. The cut line must be curved in front. To make a middle second skin cut perpendicularly to first one. To lead formed four pieces into side. To uncover superficial fascia and than deep one. To find pair dip prismatic excavation, which contains fat tissue, vessels and nerves. To detach fatty cellulose and demonstrate ischiorectal fossa.
2) Individual Students Program.
1. D³v³s³on of female sex organs ³nto external and ³nternal.
2. ²nternal sex organs.
3. Ovary, structure, topography, funct³on, and f³xat³ng apparatus.
4. Ovary ³s the organ of ³nternal secret³on.
5. Tubae uter³nae, structure, topography, funct³on.
6. Uter³ne, ³ts structure, topography, funct³on.
7. L³gaments and mesenter³c of the uterus.
8. Phys³olog³cal pos³t³on of the uterus.
9. Defects of development of uterus and organs.
10. Vag³na, ³ts structure, topography, connect³ons.
11. External sex organs.
13. Vag³nal open³ng.
14. Lab³um m³nus and lab³um majus.
15. Vag³na vest³bule.
16. M³nus and majus glands of vest³bule.
17. Cl³tor, structure, corpus cavernosus.
18. Vest³bular bulbus.
20. Female urethral track, structure, topography, ost³um.
21. Sph³ncters of female urethra track.
22. Urethra wall structure.
23. Wh³ch format³ons are v³s³ble ³n X-ray ³mag³ne of k³dneys and ur³nary ways?
25. D³fferences between male and female urethrae.
26. Per³neum ³n general and part³cular ³mportance.
27. Borders and tr³angles of per³neum.
28. Structure of urogen³tal d³aphragm. Muscles and fasc³a.
29. Structure of pelv³c d³aphragm. Muscles and fasc³a.
30. Ad³pose t³ssue space of per³neum. ²sch³orectal fossa.
II. Seminar discussion 12:30 am – 14:00 pm (2 hours)
1) Test evaluation and situational tasks
A. Spermatic cord.
C. Seminal vesicles.
D. Prostate gland.
A. Between external seminal fascia and fascia of cremaster muscle.
B. Between a skin and tunica dartos.
C. Between a tunica dartos and external seminal fascia.
D. Between the parietal and visceral lamina of vaginal tunic.
E. Between internal seminal fascia and vaginal tunic.
A. Membranous, prostatic, spongy.
B. Spongy, prostatic, membranous.
C. Membranous, spongy, prostatic.
D. Prostatic, membranous, spongy.
E. Spongy, membranous, prostatic.
A. Rectum, prostate gland.
B. Prostate gland.
C. Rectum, seminal vesicles, ampule of ejaculatory duct.
D. Male urethra.
E. Cowper's (bulbourethral) glands.
A. In a vesicouterine cavity.
B. In a rectouterine cavity.
C. In a rectovesical cavity.
D. In a right lateral canal.
E. In the left lateral canal.
III. Independent students work – 14:15pm – 15:00 pm
Initial level of knowledge and skills are checked by solving situational tasks for each topic, answers in test evaluations and constructive questions.
(the instructor has tests & situational tasks)
Student should know:
Female reproductive system. Structure, position and function of ovary. Uterus – development, shape, parts, structure and topography. Uterine tubes. Structure and topography of vagina, external reproductive organs and urethra. Topography of small pelvis organs on female. Perineal muscles and fasciae on male and female. Radiograph anatomy of urinary and reproductive organs.
Student should be able to:
2. Show proper ovaric ligament and suspensory ovaric ligament
5. Show endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium
8. Show urogenital triangle and posterior anal triangle of perineum
9. Show ischioanal [ischiorectal] fossa
Correct answers of test evaluations and situational tasks:
D. 2. D. 3. E.
1. Atlas of Human Anatomy/ Frank H. Netter,- 5 edition, - 2011 by Saunders, an Imprint of Elsevior Inc.
3. Materials preparation for lectures
4. Materials preparation for practical classes
2. F.H. Netter. Atlas of Human Anatomy. – C³ba Pharmaceut³cals D³v³s³on, 1994. – 514 p.
3. Syneln³kov R.D. The atlas of anatomy of the man. ²n 4-th volumes. -: Med³c³na, 1991.
4. Reminetskyy B.Y., Fedonyuk Y.I. Human anatomy. Notes. 136 p.
The instruction was discussed and confirmed at the department meeting
25.06.2012. Protocol number 11