LESSON #2 (6 HOURS)
Theme: Structure of ribs and sternum. Thorax as the whole. Formation of the thorax. Structure of clavicle and scapula. Bones of arm, forearm, hand. General data about a skull. Occipital, parietal and frontal bones. Sphenoid and ethmoid bones.
Aim: To study the structure of thorax bones, scapula, clavicle. To receive general data about skeleton of upper limb.
To term, find and show in cranium and separate preparations occipital, parietal and frontal bones, their parts, tell about their structure.
To study location, part, structural features of the sphenoid and ethmoid. Understand their participation in different scull structures.
Professional orientation of students: Knowledge the structure of thorax and pectoral girdle bones and humerus is the base to understand location chest viscera and clinic pulmonology, phtysiatry, cardiology and surgical practice.knowledge the structure of occipital, parietal and frontal bones allow to understand morphological peculiarities of cavity for brain and cranial nerves, also important vessels. The correct structure and position of the bones are very important for normal functioning of visual organs, frontal air sinuses, also dural venous sinuses and internal jugular veins. Understanding the structure is a fundamental base for the neurosurgical, and therapeutical practice also traumatology. knowledge the structure of Sphenoid and Ethmoid bones allow to understand morphological peculiarities of cavity for brain and cranial nerves, also important vessels and hypophysis. The correct structure and position of the bones are very important for normal functioning of ethmoid and sphenoid air sinuses, also dural venous sinuses and portion of nasal cavity. Understanding the structure is a fundamental base for the neurosurgical, and therapeutical practice also traumatology and ENT specialiats.
Basic Level: Roman (Latin) terminology.
I. Practical work – 9:00-12:00 am (4 hours)
1) Illustrative materialss:
Bones of arm, forearm, hand.
parietal and frontal bones. Sphenoid and ethmoid bones.
Training X-ray film, CT scans and MRI.
2) Methodology of Practical Class.
Work 1. Studying the anatomy of thorax and shoulder girdle bones.
Independently, attached to active teacher consultation, participating in textbooks and atlases, to learn a rib, sternum, scapula, clavicle on separate preparations and on skeleton.
Work 2. . Studying anatomy of frontal, parietal and occipital bones
After the active teacher’s consultation, using textbooks and atlases, to learn an anatomy of the frontal, parietal and occipital bones on separate preparations and on a skull.
Work 3. Studying anatomy of sphenoid and ethmoid
After the active teacher’s consultation, using textbooks and atlases, to learn anatomy of sphenoid and ethmoid bones on separate preparations and on skull.
3) Demonstrate on preparations:
Ribs: surfaces, margins. Peculiarities of the ribs.
Sternum: parts and structure.
Skeleton and bones of the upper limb.
Clavicle: body, ends, surfaces, formations on the lower surfaces.
Scapula: margins, angles, formations are disposet on costal and dorsal surfaces.
Skull: neurocranium and viscerocranium, border between calvria and base.
Frontal bone: sguama: external, internal, temporal surfaces. Frontal tuber, superciliary arch, supraorbital margin, zygomatic process, frontal crest, groove for the superior sagittal sinus, foramen caecum. Nasal part: nasal spine. Orbital part: ethmoidal notch, trochlear fovea, trochlear spine, fossa for the lacrimal gland.
Parietal bone: external and internal surfaces, frontal, occipital, sagittal and sguamous borders, fronta, occipita, sphenoid and mastoid angles. Groove for the superior sagittal sinus, groove for the sigmoid sinus, superior and inferior temporal lines.
Occipital bone: foramen magnum, sguama, basilar part. Grooves for the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. Hypoglossal and condylar canals. Pharyngeal tubercle.
Sphenoid bone: body, sella turcica, hypophysial fossa, tuberculum sellae, carotid sulcus, sphenoidal crest, sphenoidal conchae, opening of the sphenoid sinus. Small wing: optic canal, supirior orbital fissure. Great wing: cerebral, orbital, temporal and maxillary surfaces: foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and foramen spinosum. Pterygoid processes: medial and lateral plates, pteryoid fossa, pteryoid canal.
Ethmoid bone: cribriform plate, crista galli, perpendicular plate. Ethmoidal labyrinth: ethmoidal cells, orbital plate, superior and middle nasal conchae.
II. Seminar discussion 12:30 am – 14:00 pm (2 hours)
1) Special attention should be paid to the following questions:
1. How many rib pairs does human have?
2. What ribs name they true, false and fluctuate? What quantity of them?
3. What structure of rib?
4. How distinguish they left rib from right one?
5. What parts of vertebrae do ribs attach with?
6. In what way do ribs attach with sternum?
7. What features do 1st, 10th, 11th, 12th ribs distinguish by?
8. What parts does sternum have?
9. What formations does sternum have?
10. What is sternum angle?
11. What notches are present in sternum body, what do they join with?
12. What departments do they distinguish in upper limb skeleton?
13. What bones belong to shoulder girdle?
14. What shape does clavicle have?
15. What curves and surfaces does clavicle have, what bones does it connect with?
16. How distinguish left clavicle from right one?
17. What shape does scapula have?
18. What margins, surfaces and angles distinguish they in scapula?
19. What is scapular spine, what fossae does it separate, what anatomical uu does it go on?
What formations are there on lateral scapular angle?
21. Name and show departments of cranium.
22. Demonstrate border between calvaria and basicranium.
23. Name and show departments of frontal bone.
24. Describe topography of the frontal sinus, tell about its importance.
25. Orient in space frontal bone.
26. Where is dislocated parietal bone?
27. Name and show formations of the parietal bone.
28. How distinguish they left parietal bone from right one?
29. Where is dislocated occipital bone?
30. What parts do they distinguish in occipital bone?
31. What is foramen magnum bordered by?
32. Describe the squamous part of the occipital bone?
What formations are dislocated in lateral parts of the occipital bone?
What formations are dislocated in basilar parts of the occipital bone?
35. What part of skull does sphenoid belong to?
36. What bones and cavities does sphenoid border up?
37. How is sphenoid body built and what formations does it have?
38. Describe the structure of the lesser wing?
39. What anatomical formations located in greater wing? Their practical importance.
40. What structures do greater wings take part in?
41. What is structure of the pterygoid process and what does it border up?
42. How is ethmoid structured and what part of scull does it belong to?
43. How is ethmoidal labyrinth structured? Where are ethmoidal cells opened?
hat structures does ethmoid take part in?
III. Independent students work – 14:15pm – 15:00 pm
1. Atlas of Human Anatomy/ Frank H. Netter,- 5 edition, - 2011 by Saunders, an Imprint of Elsevior Inc.
3. Materials preparation for lectures
4. Materials preparation for practical classes
2. F.H. Netter. Atlas of Human Anatomy. – Cіba Pharmaceutіcals Dіvіsіon, 1994. – 514 p.
3. Synelnіkov R.D. The atlas of anatomy of the man. Іn 4-th volumes. -: Medіcіna, 1991.
4. Reminetskyy B.Y., Fedonyuk Y.I. Human anatomy. Notes. 136 p.
Methodical instructions have been prepared by: Assistant Prof. A.V.Miz
The instruction was discussed and confirmed at the department meeting
12.06.2013. Protocol number 11