Theme: Anatomy and medicine. Department of Human Anatomy TSMU, scientific achievement. Acquaintance with a department. Anatomic terminology. Axes, planes of human body. Skeleton of trunk (general data). Structure of vertebra. Structural features of cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Structural features of vertebrae lumbar, sacrum and coccyx. Backbone as the whole.



 Aim: to study the main anatomical terms, to understand the role of anatomy in the medical education. To learn laboratories and museums of the human anatomy department.

To study the main terms describing the position of the human body and the structure of the bones, be able to demonstrate general parts of the vertebra.

To study features of cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. To find, term and show structural elements of the sacrum and coccyx.


Professional orientation of students: knowledge the main anatomical terms allow to describe the structure of the organs and to understand the anatomical descriptions. Knowledge the planes, axes and surfaces allow to describe organs and to understand ready description. The correct structure and position of the vertebral elements are very important for normal functioning of many organs: viscera of thoracic cage, spinal cord, spinal nerves, vertebral arteries. Vertebrology is a fundamental base for the neurosurgical and therapeutical practice. Understanding the structure of the backbone is necessary background for studying neuroscience and different pathologic cases. These bones are the places of muscle attachment and location of the spinal cord, great number of somatic and autonomic nervous fibres and very important vessels pass between and closed to them.


Basic Level: Roman (Latin) terminology.



I.                  Practical work  – 9:00-12:00 am (4 hours)


1)    Illustrative materialss:

2)    Skeleton.

3)    Vertebrae.

4)    Training video.

5)    Training X-ray film, CT scans and MRI.



6)    Methodology of Practical Class.


Work 1. Students have to know: the main terms describing the position of the human body and the structure of human anatomy department.

Work 2. . Studying of vertebrae anatomy

After the teacher’s consultation, learn a vertebra‘s anatomy on separate preparations and skeleton using the textbook and atlases.

Work 3. After the active teacher consultation, using textbooks and atlases, to learn the structure of cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and coccyx on separate preparations and on skeleton.


7)    Demonstrate on preparations:

Skeleton: planes, axes and movement.

Departments of human body and bons.

Departments of bon, periosteum.

Departments of tipical vertebra. Departments of vertebral column.

Peculiarities of cervical vertebrae.

Peculiarities of thoracic vertebrae.

Lumbar vertebrae, structure.

Sacral bon, coccyx: structure.


II. Seminar discussion 12:30 am – 14:00 pm (2 hours)

1. What role of anatomy in forming physician-specialist?

2. Importance of anatomy in study of clinic subjects?

3. Why do we need basic Latin terminology?

4. What surfaces do we term as sagittal, frontal and horizontal?

5. What moves can be real around sagittal axis? (Demonstrate)

6. What move can be real around vertical axis? (Demonstrate)

7. What moves can be real around frontal axis? (Demonstrate)

8. What parts does bone (as organ) have?

9. What groups do bones classify according to their shape and inner structure?

10. What structure of bone in section?

11.  What structure of periosteum and what bone parts aren’t covered by periosteum?

12. Where is situated bone marrow and what is his functional role?

13. What departments of vertebral column do they make out and how many vertebrae are there in each of them?

14. What departments do they distinguish in vertebral column?

15. What general quantity vertebrae in human?

16. What spines do they term as true and false? What departments do they belong to?

17.  What parts does each spine have?

18.  Inform characteristics of cervical spines?

19.  What features of the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th cervical spines?

20.  Describe the structure of the thoracic vertebrae?

21.  What features do 1st, 10th, 11th, 12th thoracic vertebrae distinguish by?

22.  What features of the lumbar spines do you know?

23.  What surfaces and parts does sacrum have?

24.  What formations does sacrum have on pelvic surface?

25.  What formations does sacrum have on dorsal surface?

26.  What bones does sacrum attach with?

Describe structure of coccyx.


ІІІ. Independent students work  – 14:15 – 15:00 pm




а) basic


1.     Atlas of Human Anatomy/ Frank H. Netter,- 5  edition, - 2011 by Saunders, an Imprint of Elsevior Inc.

2.     Gray's Anatomy for Students: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 2e, - 2010. 2092 p.  Richard L. Drake Ph.D, A. Wayne Vogl, Adam W.M. Mitchell, – Printed in Canada.

3.      Materials preparation for lectures


4.     Materials preparation for practical classes


    b) additional

1.     Human anatomy & physiology /Elaine N. Marieb, Katja Hoehn., San Francisco : Benjamin Cummings, c2010., 8th ed.

2.     F.H. Netter. Atlas of Human Anatomy. – Cіba Pharmaceutіcals Dіvіsіon, 1994. – 514 p.

3.     Synelnіkov R.D. The atlas of anatomy of the man. Іn 4-th volumes. -: Medіcіna, 1991.

4.     Reminetskyy B.Y., Fedonyuk Y.I. Human anatomy. Notes. 136 p.

5.      Lectures.





Methodical instructions have been prepared by: Assistant Prof. A.V.Miz



The instruction was discussed and confirmed at the department meeting

12.06.2013. Protocol number 11