1. Subclavian and axillary arteries and veins
2. Brachial, ulnar and radial arteries, topography and branches on arm, forearm and hand
3. Superficial and deep veins, lymphatics of upper extremity.
Lesson # 35
Theme 1. Subclavian and axillary arteries and veins
Left subclavian artery starts from aortic arch and right one - from the brachiocephalic trunk. It leaves thoracic cavity through the superior aperture, rounds a pleura cupola and gets into interscalenus space. Then artery lies under clavicle into same name sulcus of first rib and runs into axillary cavity, where has a name axillary artery. Subclavian artery conventionally subdivides into three portions: before interscalenus space, in interscalenus space and after interscalenus space.
Before interscalenus space subclavian artery gives off the following branches:
Vertebral artery is a largest branch of subclavian artery, passes in foramens of transversal processes of cervical vertebrae, transfixes a atlanto-occipital membrane and dura mater encephali and through occipital foramen magnum gets into skull cavity. Behind pons this right and left artery flows together and forms basillar artery. Vertebral artery gives off anterior spinal artery and posterior spinal artery, and posterior inferior cerebellar artery. From basillar artery start: anterior inferior cerebellar artery, labyrinthic artery, pontini arteries and artery mesencephalic. Vertebral artery together with anterior spinal arteries forms around medulla oblongata circle of Zakharchenka.
Basillar artery on level of anterior margin pons ramifies on two posterior cerebral arteries, which supply occipital lobes of cerebrum. Posterior cerebral arteries connect by posterior communicating artery with internal carotid artery. Also thank to anterior communicating and cerebral arteries arterial circle of brain (circle of Willis) forms.
Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries.
Internal thoracic artery begins from inferior surface of subclavian artery and passes along І-VII cartilages of ribs near sternum, where disintegrates on two terminal branches are musculо-phrenic artery and superior epigastric artery. Internal thoracic artery gives off rami for thymus, bronchі, pericardium and sternum. Also from this artery moves away rami mammarii, tracheal rami, anterior intercostal branches, which supply intercostal muscles. Superior epigastric artery gets into sheath of rectus abdominal muscle, supplies this muscle and anastomoses with inferior epigastric artery on navel level.
Thyro-cervical trunk is has
In interscalenus space subclavian artery gives off costo-cervical trunk, which ramifies into deep cervical artery, which supplies semispinalis capitis and cervicis muscles and suprema intercostal artery, which ramifies into I and ІІ intercostal spaces, supplying intercostal muscles.
After interscalenus space space subclavian artery gives off
transverse colli artery, which continues into dorsal scapulae artery. They supply rhomboid, levator scapulae and shoulder girdle muscles.
The artery which supplies the upper extremity continues as a single trunk from its commencement down to the elbow; but different portions of it have received different names, according to the regions through which they pass. That part of the vessel which extends from its origin to the outer border of the first rib is termed the subclavian; beyond this point to the lower border of the axilla it is named the axillary; and from the lower margin of the axillary space to the bend of the elbow it is termed brachial; here the trunk ends by dividing into two branches the radial and ulnar.
The internal mammary artery and its branches.
The Subclavian Artery (a. Subclavia).
—On the right side the subclavian artery arises from the innominate artery behind the right sternoclavicular articulation; on the left side it springs from the arch of the aorta. The two vessels, therefore, in the first part of their course, differ in length, direction, and relation with neighboring structures.
In order to facilitate the description, each subclavian artery is divided into three parts. The first portion extends from the origin of the vessel to the medial border of the Scalenus anterior; the second lies behind this muscle; and the third extends from the lateral margin of the muscle to the outer border of the first rib, where it becomes the axillary artery. The first portions of the two vessels require separate descriptions; the second and third parts of the two arteries are practically alike.
First Part of the Right Subclavian Artery.—The first part of the right subclavian artery arises from the innominate artery, behind the upper part of the right sternoclavicular articulation, and passes upward and lateralward to the medial margin of the Scalenus anterior. It ascends a little above the clavicle, the extent to which it does so varying in different cases.
Relations.—It is covered, in front, by the integument, superficial fascia, Platysma, deep fascia, the clavicular origin of the Sternocleidomastoideus, the Sternohyoideus, and Sternothyreoideus, and another layer of the deep fascia. It is crossed by the internal jugular and vertebral veins, by the vagus nerve and the cardiac branches of the vagus and sympathetic, and by the subclavian loop of the sympathetic trunk which forms a ring around the vessel. The anterior jugular vein is directed lateralward in front of the artery, but is separated from it by the Sternohyoideus and Sternothyreoideus. Below and behind the artery is the pleura, which separates it from the apex of the lung; behind is the sympathetic trunk, the Longus collie and the first thoracic vertebra. The right recurrent nerve winds around the lower and back part of the vessel.
First Part of the Left Subclavian Artery .—The first part of the left subclavian artery arises from the arch of the aorta, behind the left common carotid, and at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra; it ascends in the superior mediastinal cavity to the root of the neck and then arches lateralward to the medial border of the Scalenus anterior.
Relations.—It is in relation, in front, with the vagus, cardiac, and phrenic nerves, which lie parallel with it, the left common carotid artery, left internal jugular and vertebral veins, and the commencement of the left innominate vein, and is covered by the Sternothyreoideus, Sternohyoideus, and Sternocleidomastoideus; behind, it is in relation with the esophagus, thoracic duct, left recurrent nerve, inferior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, and Longus colli; higher up, however, the esophagus and thoracic duct lie to its right side; the latter ultimately arching over the vessel to join the angle of union between the subclavian and internal jugular veins. Medial to it are the esophagus, trachea, thoracic duct, and left recurrent nerve; lateral to it, the left pleura and lung.
Second and Third Parts of the Subclavian Artery .—The second portion of the subclavian artery lies behind the Scalenus anterior; it is very short, and forms the highest part of the arch described by the vessel.
Relations.—It is covered, in front, by the skin, superficial fascia, Platysma, deep cervical fascia, Sternocleidomastoideus, and Scalenus anterior. On the right side of the neck the phrenic nerve is separated from the second part of the artery by the Scalenus anterior, while on the left side it crosses the first part of the artery close to the medial edge of the muscle. Behind the vessel are the pleura and the Scalenus medius; above, the brachial plexus of nerves; below, the pleura. The subclavian vein lies below and in front of the artery, separated from it by the Scalenus anterior.
The third portion of the subclavian artery runs downward and lateralward from the lateral margin of the Scalenus anterior to the outer border of the first rib, where it becomes the axillary artery. This is the most superficial portion of the vessel, and is contained in the subclavian triangle.
Relations.—It is covered, in front, by the skin, the superficial fascia, the Platysma, the supraclavicular nerves, and the deep cervical fascia. The external jugular vein crosses its medial part and receives the transverse scapular, transverse cervical, and anterior jugular veins, which frequently form a plexus in front of the artery. Behind the veins, the nerve to the Subclavius descends in front of the artery. The terminal part of the artery lies behind the clavicle and the Subclavius and is crossed by the transverse scapular vessels. The subclavian vein is in front of and at a slightly lower level than the artery. Behind, it lies on the lowest trunk of the brachial plexus, which intervenes between it and the Scalenus medius. Above and to its lateral side are the upper trunks of the brachial plexus and the Omohyoideus. Below, it rests on the upper surface of the first rib.
Peculiarities.—The subclavian arteries vary in their origin, their course, and the height to which they rise in the neck.
The origin of the right subclavian from the innominate takes place, in some cases, above the sternoclavicular articulation, and occasionally, but less frequently, below that joint. The artery may arise as a separate trunk from the arch of the aorta, and in such cases it may be either the first, second, third, or even the last branch derived from that vessel; in the majority, however, it is the first or last, rarely the second or third. When it is the first branch, it occupies the ordinary position of the innominate artery; when the second or third, it gains its usual position by passing behind the right carotid; and when the last branch, it arises from the left extremity of the arch, and passes obliquely toward the right side, usually behind the trachea, esophagus, and right carotid, sometimes between the esophagus and trachea, to the upper border of the first rib, whence it follows its ordinary course. In very rare instances, this vessel arises from the thoracic aorta, as low down as the fourth thoracic vertebra. Occasionally, it perforates the Scalenus anterior; more rarely it passes in front of that muscle. Sometimes the subclavian vein passes with the artery behind the Scalenus anterior. The artery may ascend as high as 4 cm. above the clavicle, or any intermediate point between this and the upper border of the bone, the right subclavian usually ascending higher than the left.
The left subclavian is occasionally joined at its origin with the left carotid.
The left subclavian artery is more deeply placed than the right in the first part of its course, and, as a rule, does not reach quite as high a level in the neck. The posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus corresponds pretty closely to the lateral border of the Scalenus anterior, so that the third portion of the artery, the part most accessible for operation, lies immediately lateral to the posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoideus.
Collateral Circulation.—After ligature of the third part of the subclavian artery, the collateral circulation is established mainly by three sets of vessels, thus described in a dissection:
1. A posterior set, consisting of the transverse scapular and the descending ramus of the transverse cervical branches of the subclavian, anastomosing with the subscapular from the axillary.
2. A medial set, produced by the connection of the internal mammary on the one hand, with the highest intercostal and lateral thoracic arteries, and the branches from the subscapular on the other.
3. A middle or axillary set, consisting of a number of small vessels derived from branches of the subclavian, above, and, passing through the axilla, terminating either in the main trunk, or some of the branches of the axillary below. This last set presented most conspicuously the peculiar character of newly formed or, rather, dilated arteries, being excessively tortuous, and forming a complete plexus.
The chief agent in the restoration of the axillary artery below the tumor was the subscapular artery, which communicated most freely with the internal mammary, transverse scapular and descending ramus of the transverse cervical branches of the subclavian, from all of which it received so great an influx of blood as to dilate it to three times its natural size. 101
When a ligature is applied to the first part of the subclavian artery, the collateral circulation is carried on by: (1) the anastomosis between the superior and inferior thyroids; (2) the anastomosis of the two vertebrals; (3) the anastomosis of the internal mammary with the inferior epigastric and the aortic intercostals; (4) the costocervical anastomosing with the aortic intercostals; (5) the profunda cervicis anastomosing with the descending branch of the occipital; (6) the scapular branches of the thyrocervical trunk anastomosing with the branches of the axillary, and (7) the thoracic branches of the axillary anastomosing with the aortic intercostals.
Branches.—The branches of the subclavian artery are:
On the left side all four branches generally arise from the first portion of the vessel; but on the right side the costocervical trunk usually springs from the second portion of the vessel. On both sides of the neck, the first three branches arise close together at the medial border of the Scalenus anterior; in the majority of cases, a free interval of from 1.25 to 2.5 cm. exists between the commencement of the artery and the origin of the nearest branch.
1. The vertebral artery (a. vertebralis) , is the first branch of the subclavian, and arises from the upper and back part of the first portion of the vessel. It is surrounded by a plexus of nerve fibers derived from the inferior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, and ascends through the foramina in the transverse processes of the upper six cervical vertebrae it then winds behind the superior articular process of the atlas and, entering the skull through the foramen magnum, unites, at the lower border of the pons, with the vessel of the opposite side to form the basilar artery.
Relations.—The vertebral artery may be divided into four parts: The first part runs upward and backward between the Longus colli and the Scalenus anterior. In front of it are the internal jugular and vertebral veins, and it is crossed by the inferior thyroid artery; the left vertebral is crossed by the thoracic duct also. Behind it are the transverse process of the seventh cervical vertebra, the sympathetic trunk and its inferior cervical ganglion. The second part runs upward through the foramina in the transverse processes of the upper six cervical vertebræ, and is surrounded by branches from the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and by a plexus of veins which unite to form the vertebral vein at the lower part of the neck. It is situated in front of the trunks of the cervical nerves, and pursues an almost vertical course as far as the transverse process of the atlas, above which it runs upward and lateralward to the foramen in the transverse process of the atlas. The third part issues from the latter foramen on the medial side of the Rectus capitis lateralis, and curves backward behind the superior articular process of the atlas, the anterior ramus of the first cervical nerve being on its medial side; it then lies in the groove on the upper surface of the posterior arch of the atlas, and enters the vertebral canal by passing beneath the posterior atlantoöccipital membrane. This part of the artery is covered by the Semispinalis capitis and is contained in the suboccipital triangle—a triangular space bounded by the Rectus capitis posterior major, the Obliquus superior, and the Obliquus inferior. The first cervical or suboccipital nerve lies between the artery and the posterior arch of the atlas. The fourth part pierces the dura mater and inclines medialward to the front of the medulla oblongata; it is placed between the hypoglossal nerve and the anterior root of the first cervical nerve and beneath the first digitation of the ligamentum denticulatum. At the lower border of the pons it unites with the vessel of the opposite side to form the basilar artery.
Branches.—The branches of the vertebral artery may be divided into two sets: those given off in the neck, and those within the cranium.
Posterior Inferior Cerebellar.
Spinal Branches (rami spinales) enter the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina, and each divides into two branches. Of these, one passes along the roots of the nerves to supply the medulla spinalis and its membranes, anastomosing with the other arteries of the medulla spinalis; the other divides into an ascending and a descending branch, which unite with similar branches from the arteries above and below, so that two lateral anastomotic chains are formed on the posterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebræ, near the attachment of the pedicles. From these anastomotic chains branches are supplied to the periosteum and the bodies of the vertebræ, and others form communications with similar branches from the opposite side; from these communications small twigs arise which join similar branches above and below, to form a central anastomotic chain on the posterior surface of the bodies of the vertebræ.
Muscular Branches are given off to the deep muscles of the neck, where the vertebral artery curves around the articular process of the atlas. They anastomose with the occipital, and with the ascending and deep cervical arteries.
The Meningeal Branch (ramus meningeus; posterior meningeal branch) springs from the vertebral opposite the foramen magnum, ramifies between the bone and dura mater in the cerebellar fossa, and supplies the falx cerebelli. It is frequently represented by one or two small branches.
The Posterior Spinal Artery (a. spinalis posterior; dorsal spinal artery) arises from the vertebral, at the side of the medulla oblongata; passing backward, it descends on this structure, lying in front of the posterior roots of the spinal nerves, and is reinforced by a succession of small branches, which enter the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina; by means of these it is continued to the lower part of the medulla spinalis, and to the cauda equina. Branches from the posterior spinal arteries form a free anastomosis around the posterior roots of the spinal nerves, and communicate, by means of very tortuous transverse branches, with the vessels of the opposite side. Close to its origin each gives off an ascending branch, which ends at the side of the fourth ventricle.
The Anterior Spinal Artery (a. spinalis anterior; ventral spinal artery) is a small branch, which arises near the termination of the vertebral, and, descending in front of the medulla oblongata, unites with its fellow of the opposite side at the level of the foramen magnum. One of these vessels is usually larger than the other, but occasionally they are about equal in size. The single trunk, thus formed, descends on the front of the medulla spinalis, and is reinforced by a succession of small branches which enter the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina; these branches are derived from the vertebral and the ascending cervical of the inferior thyroid in the neck; from the intercostals in the thorax; and from the lumbar, iliolumbar, and lateral sacral arteries in the abdomen and pelvis. They unite, by means of ascending and descending branches, to form a single anterior median artery, which extend as far as the lower part of the medulla spinalis, and is continued as a slender twig on the filum terminale. This vessel is placed in the pia mater along the anterior median fissure; it supplies that membrane, and the substance of the medulla spinalis, and sends off branches at its lower part to be distributed to the cauda equina.
The Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (a. cerebelli inferior posterior) , the largest branch of the vertebral, winds backward around the upper part of the medulla oblongata, passing between the origins of the vagus and accessory nerves, over the inferior peduncle to the under surface of the cerebellum, where it divides into two branches. The medial branch is continued backward to the notch between the two hemispheres of the cerebellum; while the lateral supplies the under surface of the cerebellum, as far as its lateral border, where it anastomoses with the anterior inferior cerebellar and the superior cerebellar branches of the basilar artery. Branches from this artery supply the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle.
The Medullary Arteries (bulbar arteries) are several minute vessels which spring from the vertebral and its branches and are distributed to the medulla oblongata.
The Basilar Artery (a. basilaris) , so named from its position at the base of the skull, is a single trunk formed by the junction of the two vertebral arteries: it extends from the lower to the upper border of the pons, lying in its median groove, under cover of the arachnoid. It ends by dividing into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Its branches, on either side, are the following:
The pontine branches (rami ad pontem; transverse branches) are a number of small vessels which come off at right angles from either side of the basilar artery and supply the pons and adjacent parts of the brain.
The internal auditory artery (a. auditiva interna; auditory artery), a long slender branch, arises from near the middle of the artery; it accompanies the acoustic nerve through the internal acoustic meatus, and is distributed to the internal ear.
The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (a. cerebelli inferior anterior) passes backward to be distributed to the anterior part of the under surface of the cerebellum, anastomosing with the posterior inferior cerebellar branch of the vertebral.
The superior cerebellar artery (a. cerebelli superior) arises near the termination of the basilar. It passes lateralward, immediately below the oculomotor nerve, which separates it from the posterior cerebral artery, winds around the cerebral peduncle, close to the trochlear nerve, and, arriving at the upper surface of the cerebellum, divides into branches which ramify in the pia mater and anastomose with those of the inferior cerebellar arteries. Several branches are given to the pineal body, the anterior medullary velum, and the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle.
The posterior cerebral artery (a. cerebri posterior) is larger than the preceding, from which it is separated near its origin by the oculomotor nerve. Passing lateralward, parallel to the superior cerebellar artery, and receiving the posterior communicating from the internal carotid, it winds around the cerebral peduncle, and reaches the tentorial surface of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum, where it breaks up into branches for the supply of the temporal and occipital lobes.
The branches of the posterior cerebral artery are divided into two sets, ganglionic and cortical:
Ganglionic.—The postero-medial ganglionic branches are a group of small arteries which arise at the commencement of the posterior cerebral artery: these, with similar branches from the posterior communicating, pierce the posterior perforated substance, and supply the medial surfaces of the thalami and the walls of the third ventricle. The posterior choroidal branches run forward beneath the splenium of the corpus callosum, and supply the tela chorioidea of the third ventricle and the choroid plexus. The postero-lateral ganglionic branches are small arteries which arise from the posterior cerebral artery after it has turned around the cerebral peduncle; they supply a considerable portion of the thalamus.
Cortical.—The cortical branches are: the anterior temporal, distributed to the uncus and the anterior part of the fusiform gyrus; the posterior temporal, to the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyri; the calcarine, to the cuneus and gyrus lingualis and the back part of the convex surface of the occipital lobe; and the parietoöccipital, to the cuneus and the precuneus.
2. The thyrocervical trunk (truncus thyreocervicalis; thyroid axis) is a short thick trunk, which arises from the front of the first portion of the subclavian artery, close to the medial border of the Scalenus anterior, and divides almost immediately into three branches, the inferior thyroid, transverse scapular, and transverse cervical.
The Inferior Thyroid Artery (a. thyreoidea inferior) passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and Longus colli; then turns medialward behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ganglion resting upon the vessel. Reaching the lower border of the thyroid gland it divides into two branches, which supply the postero-inferior parts of the gland, and anastomose with the superior thyroid, and with the corresponding artery of the opposite side. The recurrent nerve passes upward generally behind, but occasionally in front, of the artery.
The branches of the inferior thyroid are:
The inferior laryngeal artery (a. laryngea inferior) ascends upon the trachea to the back part of the larynx under cover of the Constrictor pharyngis inferior, in company with the recurrent nerve, and supplies the muscles and mucous membrane of this part, anastomosing with the branch from the opposite side, and with the superior laryngeal branch of the superior thyroid artery.
The tracheal branches (rami tracheales) are distributed upon the trachea, and anastomose below with the bronchial arteries.
The esophageal branches (rami æsophagei) supply the esophagus, and anastomose with the esophageal branches of the aorta.
The ascending cervical artery (a. cervicalis ascendens) is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid as that vessel is passing behind the carotid sheath; it runs up on the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebræ in the interval between the Scalenus anterior and Longus capitis. To the muscles of the neck it gives twigs which anastomose with branches of the vertebral, and it sends one or two spinal branches into the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina to be distributed to the medulla spinalis and its membranes, and to the bodies of the vertebræ, in the same manner as the spinal branches from the vertebral. It anastomoses with the ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries.
The muscular branches supply the depressors of the hyoid bone, and the Longus colli, Scalenus anterior, and Constrictor pharyngis inferior.
The Transverse Scapular Artery (a. transversa scapulæ suprascapular artery) passes at first downward and lateralward across the Scalenus anterior and phrenic nerve, being covered by the Sternocleidomastoideus; it then crosses the subclavian artery and the brachial plexus, and runs behind and parallel with the clavicle and Subclavius, and beneath the inferior belly of the Omohyoideus, to the superior border of the scapula; it passes over the superior transverse ligament of the scapula which separates it from the suprascapular nerve, and enters the supraspinatous fossa . In this situation it lies close to the bone, and ramifies between it and the Supraspinatus, to which it supplies branches. It then descends behind the neck of the scapula, through the great scapular notch and under cover of the inferior transverse ligament, to reach the infraspinatous fossa, where it anastomoses with the scapular circumflex and the descending branch of the transverse cervical. Besides distributing branches to the Sternocleidomastoideus, Subclavius, and neighboring muscles, it gives off a suprasternal branch, which crosses over the sternal end of the clavicle to the skin of the upper part of the chest; and an acromial branch, which pierces the Trapezius and supplies the skin over the acromion, anastomosing with the thoracoacromial artery. As the artery passes over the superior transverse ligament of the scapula, it sends a branch into the subscapular fossa, where it ramifies beneath the Subscapularis, and anastomoses with the subscapular artery and with the descending branch of the transverse cervical. It also sends articular branches to the acromioclavicular and shoulder-joints, and a nutrient artery to the clavicle.
The scapular and circumflex arteries.
The Transverse Cervical Artery (a. transversa colli; transversalis colli artery) lies at a higher level than the transverse scapular; it passes transversely above the inferior belly of the Omohyoideus to the anterior margin of the Trapezius, beneath which it divides into an ascending and a descending branch. It crosses in front of the phrenic nerve and the Scaleni, and in front of or between the divisions of the brachial plexus, and is covered by the Platysma and Sternocleidomastoideus, and crossed by the Omohyoideus and Trapezius.
The ascending branch (ramus ascendens; superficial cervical artery) ascends beneath the anterior margin of the Trapezius, distributing branches to it, and to the neighboring muscles and lymph nodes in the neck, and anastomosing with the superficial branch of the descending ramus of the occipital artery.
The descending branch (ramus descendens; posterior scapular artery) passes beneath the Levator scapulæ to the medial angle of the scapula, and then descends under the Rhomboidei along the vertebral border of that bone as far as the inferior angle. It supplies the Rhomboidei, Latissimus dorsi and Trapezius, and anastomoses with the transverse scapular and subscapular arteries, and with the posterior branches of some of the intercostal arteries.
Peculiarities.—The ascending branch of the transverse cervical frequently arises directly from the thyrocervical trunk; and the descending branch from the third, more rarely from the second, part of the subclavian.
3. The internal mammary artery (a. mammaria interna) arises from the under surface of the first portion of the subclavian, opposite the thyrocervical trunk. It descends behind the cartilages of the upper six ribs at a distance of about 1.25 cm. from the margin of the sternum, and at the level of the sixth intercostal space divides into the musculophrenic and superior epigastric arteries.
Relations.—It is directed at first downward, forward, and medialward behind the sternal end of the clavicle, the subclavian and internal jugular veins, and the first costal cartilage, and passes forward close to the lateral side of the innominate vein. As it enters the thorax the phrenic nerve crosses from its lateral to its medial side. Below the first costal cartilage it descends almost vertically to its point of bifurcation. It is covered in front by the cartilages of the upper six ribs and the intervening Intercostales interni and anterior intercostal membranes, and is crossed by the terminal portions of the upper six intercostal nerves. It rests on the pleura, as far as the third costal cartilage; below this level, upon the Transversus thoracis. It is accompanied by a pair of veins; these unite above to form a single vessel, which runs medial to the artery and ends in the corresponding innominate vein.
Branches.—The branches of the internal mammary are:
The Pericardiacophrenic Artery (a. pericardiacophrenica; a. comes nervi phrenici) is a long slender branch, which accompanies the phrenic nerve, between the pleura and pericardium, to the diaphragm, to which it is distributed; it anastomoses with the musculophrenic and inferior phrenic arteries.
The Anterior Mediastinal Arteries (aa. mediastinales anteriores; mediastinal arteries) are small vessels, distributed to the areolar tissue and lymph nodes in the anterior mediastinal cavity, and to the remains of the thymus.
The Pericardial Branches supply the upper part of the anterior surface of the pericardium; the lower part receives branches from the musculophrenic artery.
The Sternal Branches (rami sternales) are distributed to the Transversus thoracis, and to the posterior surface of the sternum.
The anterior mediastinal, pericardial, and sternal branches, together with some twigs from the pericardiacophrenic, anastomose with branches from the intercostal and bronchial arteries, and form a subpleural mediastinal plexus.
The Intercoastal Branches (rami intercostales; anterior intercostal arteries) supply the upper five or six intercostal spaces. Two in number in each space, these small vessels pass lateralward, one lying near the lower margin of the rib above, and the other near the upper margin of the rib below, and anastomose with the intercostal arteries from the aorta. They are at first situated between the pleura and the Intercostales interni, and then between the Intercostales interni and externi. They supply the Intercostales and, by branches which perforate the Intercostales externi, the Pectorales and the mamma.
The Perforating Branches (rami perforantes) correspond to the five or six intercostal spaces. They pass forward through the intercostal spaces, and, curving lateralward, supply the Pectoralis major and the integument. Those which correspond to the second, third, and fourth spaces give branches to the mamma, and during lactation are of large size.
The Musculophrenic Artery (a. musculophrenica) is directed obliquely downward and lateralward, behind the cartilages of the false ribs; it perforates the diaphragm at the eighth or ninth costal cartilage, and ends, considerably reduced in size, opposite the last intercostal space. It gives off intercostal branches to the seventh, eighth, and ninth intercostal spaces; these diminish in size as the spaces decrease in length, and are distributed in a manner precisely similar to the intercostals from the internal mammary. The musculophrenic also gives branches to the lower part of the pericardium, and others which run backward to the diaphragm, and downward to the abdominal muscles.
The Superior Epigastric Artery (a. epigastrica superior) continues in the original direction of the internal mammary; it descends through the interval between the costal and sternal attachments of the diaphragm, and enters the sheath of the Rectus abdominis, at first lying behind the muscle, and then perforating and supplying it, and anastomosing with the inferior epigastric artery from the external iliac. Branches perforate the anterior wall of the sheath of the Rectus, and supply the muscles of the abdomen and the integument, and a small branch passes in front of the xiphoid process and anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side. It also gives some twigs to the diaphragm, while from the artery of the right side small branches extend into the falciform ligament of the liver and anastomose with the hepatic artery.
4. The costocervical trunk (truncus costocervicalis; superior intercostal artery) arises from the upper and back part of the subclavian artery, behind the Scalenus anterior on the right side, and medial to that muscle on the left side. Passing backward, it gives off the profunda cervicalis, and, continuing as the highest intercostal artery, descends behind the pleura in front of the necks of the first and second ribs, and anastomoses with the first aortic intercostal. As it crosses the neck of the first rib it lies medial to the anterior division of the first thoracic nerve, and lateral to the first thoracic ganglion of the sympathetic trunk.
In the first intercostal space, it gives off a branch which is distributed in a manner similar to the distribution of the aortic intercostals. The branch for the second intercostal space usually joins with one from the highest aortic intercostal artery. This branch is not constant, but is more commonly found on the right side; when absent, its place is supplied by an intercostal branch from the aorta. Each intercostal gives off a posterior branch which goes to the posterior vertebral muscles, and sends a small spinal branch through the corresponding intervertebral foramen to the medulla spinalis and its membranes.
The Profunda Cervicalis (a. cervicalis profunda; deep cervical branch) arises, in most cases, from the costocervical trunk, and is analogous to the posterior branch of an aortic intercostal artery: occasionally it is a separate branch from the subclavian artery. Passing backward, above the eighth cervical nerve and between the transverse process of the seventh cervical vertebra and the neck of the first rib, it runs up the back of the neck, between the Semispinales capitis and colli, as high as the axis vertebra, supplying these and adjacent muscles, and anastomosing with the deep division of the descending branch of the occipital, and with branches of the vertebral. It gives off a spinal twig which enters the canal through the intervertebral foramen between the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebræ.
Axillary artery is immediate continuation of subclavian artery. It passes in depth of armpit and covered by trunks of brachial plexus. According to topography of anterior wall of axillary cavity, axillarу artery subdivide into three portions: in clavipectoral triangle, pectoral triangle and subpectoral triangle.
In clavipectoral triangle axillar artery gives off:
· superior thoracic artery, which ramifies in intercostal I-ІІ intercostal muscles;
· thoracoacromial artery, which supplies acromial process, acromiо-clavicular joint, subclavius muscle, deltoid muscle, major and minor pectoral muscles.
In pectoral triangle from axillar artery moves away
- lateral thoracic artery, which supplies anterior serratus muscle and gives off the branches to mammary gland.
In subpectoral triangle axillar artery gives off:
· anterior circumflex humeri artery - passes in front of surgical neck of humerus supplies shoulder joint and deltoid muscle;
· posterior circumflex humeri artery - passes through quadrilaterum foramen and, anastomosing with previous artery, supplies shoulder joint and muscles, that are situated around it;
subscapular artery, which divides into thoracodorsal artery (supplies latissimus dorsi muscle and teres major muscle) and circumflex scapulae artery (passes through trilateral foramen and supplies muscles of back scapular surface).
The axilla is a pyramidal space, situated between the upper lateral part of the chest and the medial side of the arm.
Boundaries.—The apex, which is directed upward toward the root of the neck, corresponds to the interval between the outer border of the first rib, the superior border of the scapula, and the posterior surface of the clavicle, and through it the axillary vessels and nerves pass. The base, directed downward, is broad at the chest but narrow and pointed at the arm; it is formed by the integument and a thick layer of fascia, the axillary fascia, extending between the lower border of the Pectoralis major in front, and the lower border of the Latissimus dorsi behind. The anterior wall is formed by the Pectorales major and minor, the former covering the whole of this wall, the latter only its central part. The space between the upper border of the Pectoralis minor and the clavicle is occupied by the coracoclavicular fascia. The posterior wall, which extends somewhat lower than the anterior, is formed by the Subscapularis above, the Teres major and Latissimus dorsi below. On the medial side are the first four ribs with their corresponding Intercostales, and part of the Serratus anterior. On the lateral side, where the anterior and posterior walls converge, the space is narrow, and bounded by the humerus, the Coracobrachialis, and the Biceps brachii.
Contents.—It contains the axillary vessels, and the brachial plexus of nerves, with their branches, some branches of the intercostal nerves, and a large number of lymph nodes, together with a quantity of fat and loose areolar tissue. The axillary artery and vein, with the brachial plexus of nerves, extend obliquely along the lateral boundary of the axilla, from its apex to its base, and are placed much nearer to the anterior than to the posterior wall, the vein lying to the thoracic side of the artery and partially concealing it. At the forepart of the axilla, in contact with the Pectorales, are the thoracic branches of the axillary artery, and along the lower margin of the Pectoralis minor the lateral thoracic artery extends to the side of the chest. At the back part, in contact with the lower margin of the Subscapularis, are the subscapular vessels and nerves; winding around the lateral border of this muscle are the scapular circumflex vessels; and, close to the neck of the humerus, the posterior humeral circumflex vessels and the axillary nerve curve backward to the shoulder. Along the medial or thoracic side no vessel of any importance exists, the upper part of the space being crossed merely by a few small branches from the highest thoracic artery. There are some important nerves, however, in this situation, viz., the long thoracic nerve, descending on the surface of the Serratus anterior, to which it is distributed; and the intercostobrachial nerve, perforating the upper and anterior part of this wall, and passing across the axilla to the medial side of the arm.
The position and arrangement of the lymph nodes are described on pages 699 and 700.
1. The Axillary Artery— (A. Axillaris)
The axillary artery the continuation of the subclavian, commences at the outer border of the first rib, and ends at the lower border of the tendon of the Teres major, where it takes the name of brachial. Its direction varies with the position of the limb; thus the vessel is nearly straight when the arm is directed at right angles with the trunk, concave upward when the arm is elevated above this, and convex upward and lateralward when the arm lies by the side. At its origin the artery is very deeply situated, but near its termination is superficial, being covered only by the skin and fascia. To facilitate the description of the vessel it is divided into three portions; the first part lies above, the second behind, and the third below the Pectoralis minor.
Relations.—The first portion of the axillary artery is covered anteriorly by the clavicular portion of the Pectoralis major and the coracoclavicular fascia, and is crossed by the lateral anterior thoracic nerve, and the thoracoacromial and cephalic veins; posterior to it are the first intercostal space, the corresponding Intercostalis externus, the first and second digitations of the Serratus anterior, and the long thoracic and medial anterior thoracic nerves, and the medial cord of the brachial plexus; on its lateral side is the brachial plexus, from which it is separated by a little areolar tissue; on its medial, or thoracic side, is the axillary vein which overlaps the artery. It is enclosed, together with the axillary vein and the brachial plexus, in a fibrous sheath—the axillary sheath—continuous above with the deep cervical fascia.
The second portion of the axillary artery is covered, anteriorly, by the Pectorales major and minor; posterior to it are the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and some areolar tissue which intervenes between it and the Subscapularis; on the medial side is the axillary vein, separated from the artery by the medial cord of the brachial plexus and the medial anterior thoracic nerve; on the lateral side is the lateral cord of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus thus surrounds the artery on three sides, and separates it from direct contact with the vein and adjacent muscles.
The third portion of the axillary artery extends from the lower border of the Pectoralis minor to the lower border of the tendon of the Teres major. In front, it is covered by the lower part of the Pectoralis major above, but only by the integument and fascia below; behind, it is in relation with the lower part of the Subscapularis, and the tendons of the Latissimus dorsi and Teres major; on its lateral side is the Coracobrachialis, and on its medial or thoracic side, the axillary vein. The nerves of the brachial plexus bear the following relations to this part of the artery: on the lateral side are the lateral head and the trunk of the median, and the musculocutaneous for a short distance; on the medial side the ulnar (between the vein and artery) and medial brachial cutaneous (to the medial side of the vein); in front are the medial head of the median and the medial antibrachial cutaneous, and behind, the radial and axillary, the latter only as far as the lower border of the Subscapularis.
Collateral Circulation after Ligature of the Axillary Artery.—If the artery be tied above the origin of the thoracoacromial, the collateral circulation will be carried on by the same branches as after the ligature of the third part of the subclavian; if at a lower point, between the thoracoacromial and the subscapular, the latter vessel, by its free anastomosis with the transverse scapular and transverse cervical branches of the subclavian, will become the chief agent in carrying on the circulation; the lateral thoracic, if it be below the ligature, will materially contribute by its anastomoses with the intercostal and internal mammary arteries. If the point included in the ligature is below the origin of the subscapular artery, it will most probably also be below the origins of the two humeral circumflex arteries. The chief agents in restoring the circulation will then be the subscapular and the two humeral circumflex arteries anastomosing with the a. profunda brachii.
The axillary artery and its branches.
Branches.—The branches of the axillary are:
1. The highest thoracic artery (a. thoracalis suprema; superior thoracic artery) is a small vessel, which may arise from the thoracoacromial. Running forward and medialward along the upper border of the Pectoralis minor, it passes between it and the Pectoralis major to the side of the chest. It supplies branches to these muscles, and to the parietes of the thorax, and anastomoses with the internal mammary and intercostal arteries.
2. The thoracoacromial artery (a. thoracoacromialis; acromiothoracic artery; thoracic axis) is a short trunk, which arises from the forepart of the axillary artery, its origin being generally overlapped by the upper edge of the Pectoralis minor Projecting forward to the upper border of this muscle, it pierces the coracoclavicular fascia and divides into four branches—pectoral, acromial, clavicular, and deltoid. The pectoral branch descends between the two Pectorales, and is distributed to them and to the mamma, anastomosing with the intercostal branches of the internal mammary and with the lateral thoracic. The acromial branch runs lateralward over the coracoid process and under the Deltoideus, to which it gives branches; it then pierces that muscle and ends on the acromion in an arterial network formed by branches from the transverse scapular, thoracoacromial, and posterior humeral circumflex arteries. The clavicular branch runs upward and medialward to the sternoclavicular joint, supplying this articulation, and the Subclavius. The deltoid (humeral) branch, often arising with the acromial, crosses over the Pectoralis minor and passes in the same groove as the cephalic vein, between the Pectoralis major and Deltoideus, and gives branches to both muscles.
3. The lateral thoracic artery (a. thoracalis lateralis; long thoracic artery; external mammary artery) follows the lower border of the Pectoralis minor to the side of the chest, supplying the Serratus anterior and the Pectoralis, and sending branches across the axilla to the axillary glands and Subscapularis; it anastomoses with the internal mammary, subscapular, and intercostal arteries, and with the pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial. In the female it supplies an external mammary branch which turns round the free edge of the Pectoralis major and supplies the mamma.
4. The subscapular artery (a. subscapularis) the largest branch of the axillary artery, arises at the lower border of the Subscapularis, which it follows to the inferior angle of the scapula, where it anastomoses with the lateral thoracic and intercostal arteries and with the descending branch of the transverse cervical, and ends in the neighboring muscles. About 4 cm. from its origin it gives off a branch, the scapular circumflex artery.
The scapular and circumflex arteries.
The Scapular Circumflex Artery (a. circumflexa scapulæ; dorsalis scapulæ artery) is generally larger than the continuation of the subscapular. It curves around the axillary border of the scapula, traversing the space between the Subscapularis above, the Teres major below, and the long head of the Triceps laterally ; it enters the infraspinatous fossa under cover of the Teres minor, and anastomoses with the transverse scapular artery and the descending branch of the transverse cervical. In its course it gives off two branches: one (infrascapular) enters the subscapular fossa beneath the Subscapularis, which it supplies, anastomosing with the transverse scapular artery and the descending branch of the transverse cervical; the other is continued along the axillary border of the scapula, between the Teres major and minor, and at the dorsal surface of the inferior angle anastomoses with the descending branch of the transverse cervical. In addition to these, small branches are distributed to the back part of the Deltoideus and the long head of the Triceps brachii, anastomosing with an ascending branch of the a. profunda brachii.
5. The posterior humeral circumflex artery (a. circumflexa humeri posterior; posterior circumflex artery) arises from the axillary artery at the lower border of the Subscapularis, and runs backward with the axillary nerve through the quadrangular space bounded by the Subscapularis and Teres minor above, the Teres major below, the long head of the Triceps brachii medially, and the surgical neck of the humerus laterally. It winds around the neck of the humerus and is distributed to the Deltoideus and shoulder-joint, anastomosing with the anterior humeral circumflex and profunda brachii.
6. The anterior humeral circumflex artery (a. circumflexa humeri anterior; anterior circumflex artery) considerably smaller than the posterior, arises nearly opposite it, from the lateral side of the axillary artery. It runs horizontally, beneath the Coracobrachialis and short head of the Biceps brachii, in front of the neck of the humerus. On reaching the intertubercular sulcus, it gives off a branch which ascends in the sulcus to supply the head of the humerus and the shoulder-joint. The trunk of the vessel is then continued onward beneath the long head of the Biceps brachii and the Deltoideus, and anastomoses with the posterior humeral circumflex artery.
Peculiarities.—The branches of the axillary artery vary considerably in different subjects. Occasionally the subscapular, humeral circumflex, and profunda arteries arise from a common trunk, and when this occurs the branches of the brachial plexus surround this trunk instead of the main vessel. Sometimes the axillary artery divides into the radial and ulnar arteries, and occasionally it gives origin to the volar interosseous artery of the forearm.
Theme 2. Brachial, ulnar and radial arteries, topography and branches on arm, forearm and hand
Brachial artery is immediate continuation of axillary artery and, starting to on level of inferior margin of major pectoral muscle, passes in medial biceps brachii sulcus, and in cubital fossa subdivides into its terminal branches are radial and ulnar.
· deep brachial artery - takes beginning from upper third of brachial artery, passes along the radial nerve in radial canal, where gives off the branches to posterior brachial muscles group and to deltoid muscle. Deep brachial artery ramifies into middle collateral artery, which anastomoses with recurrent interossea artery, and radial collateral artery, which anastomoses with radial recurrent artery;
· superior ulnar collateral artery starts from brachial artery beneath deep brachial artery and passes to posteriomedial surface of elbow joint, where anastomoses with posterior branch of ulnar recurrent artery;
· inferior ulnar collateral artery starts from brachial artery in inferior its third, passes to anteriomedial surface of elbow joint, where anastomoses with anterior branch of ulnarої recurrent artery.
All named above collateral arteries, anastomosing with recurrent arteries, take part in forming of arterial cubital rete, from which blood supplies joint and muscles around it.
Arteries of forearm and hand. Forearm and hand originate from terminal branches of brachial artery - radial and ulnar arteries.
Radial artery lies in radial anrebrachial sulcus and, rounding a styloid process of radius bone, passes on dorsal surface of hand, and then through the first interosseus space gets on palm, where its terminal portion, anastomosing with deep palmar branch from ulnar artery, makes deep palmar arc. Last gives off palmar metacarpeal arteries which anastomose with branches of superficial palmar arch - common palmar digital arteries.
Radial artery gives off follow branches:
- radial recurrent artery, which anastomoses with radial collateral artery;
- superficial palmar branch, which anastomoses with terminal portion of ulnar artery, and muscular branches, which supply forearm muscles;
- dorsal carpal branch and palmar carpal branch take hand in formation of dorsal carpal rete and palmar carpal rete;
- first dorsal metacarpeal artery gives branches into three dorsal digital arteries, which feed dorsal surface of I and II fingers;
- principal artery of pollex, which ramifies on three proper palmar digital arteries to I finger and radial side of palmar surface of ІІ finger. From dorsal carpal net four dorsal metacerpeal arteries start, each from which subdivides into two dorsal digital arteries. Last supply dorsal surfaces ІІ-V of fingers.
Ulnar artery lies into ulnar antebrachial sulcus and through the carpal canal gets on palm, where its terminal portion anastomoses with superficial palmar branch from radial artery and forms superficial palmar arc.
- ulnar recurrent artery, which subdivides into anterior branch and posterior branch. They anastomose with collateral brachial arteries inferior and superior and take hand in formation of cubital articulate net (rete articulare cubiti);
- common interossea artery, which divides into anterior interossea artery and posterior interossea artery. These arteries supply deep forearm muscles and take hand in formation of wrist nets. Recurrent interossea artery moves away from posterior interossea artery, then anastomoses with media collateral artery, and is take part in forming of cubital articulate net (rete articulare cubiti);
- dorsal carpal branch and palmar carpal branch take hand in formation of dorsal carpal rete and palmar carpal rete;
- deep palmar branch, which anastomoses with terminal portion of radial artery and takes hand in formation of deep palmar arc.
From superficial palmar arch three common palmar digital arteries move away, which ramify each on two proper palmar digital arteries.
From deep palmar arch 4 palmar metacarpeal arteries moves away, which fall into common palmar digital arteries and into principal artery of pollex in area of their division into proper palmar digital arteries.
The brachial artery commences at the lower margin of the tendon of the Teres major, and, passing down the arm, ends about 1 cm. below the bend of the elbow, where it divides into the radial and ulnar arteries. At first the brachial artery lies medial to the humerus; but as it runs down the arm it gradually gets in front of the bone, and at the bend of the elbow it lies midway between its two epicondyles.
Relations.—The artery is superficial throughout its entire extent, being covered, in front, by the integument and the superficial and deep fasciæ; the lacertus fibrosus (bicipital fascia) lies in front of it opposite the elbow and separates it from the vena mediana cubiti; the median nerve crosses from its lateral to its medial side opposite the insertion of the Coracobrachialis. Behind, it is separated from the long head of the Triceps brachii by the radial nerve and a. profunda brachii. It then lies upon the medial head of the Triceps brachii, next upon the insertion of the Coracobrachialis, and lastly on the Brachialis. Laterally, it is in relation above with the median nerve and the Coracobrachialis, below with the Biceps brachii, the two muscles overlapping the artery to a considerable extent. Medially, its upper half is in relation with the medial antibrachial cutaneous and ulnar nerves, its lower half with the median nerve. The basilic vein lies on its medial side, but is separated from it in the lower part of the arm by the deep fascia. The artery is accompanied by two venæ comitantes, which lie in close contact with it, and are connected together at intervals by short transverse branches.
The Anticubital Fossa.—At the bend of the elbow the brachial artery sinks deeply into a triangular interval, the anticubital fossa. The base of the triangle is directed upward, and is represented by a line connecting the two epicondyles of the humerus; the sides are formed by the medial edge of the Brachioradialis and the lateral margin of the Pronator teres; the floor is formed by the Brachialis and Supinator. This space contains the brachial artery, with its accompanying veins; the radial and ulnar arteries; the median and radial nerves; and the tendon of the Biceps brachii. The brachial artery occupies the middle of the space, and divides opposite the neck of the radius into the radial and ulnar arteries; it is covered, in front, by the integument, the superficial fascia, and the vena mediana cubiti, the last being separated from the artery by the lacertus fibrosus. Behind it is the Brachialis which separates it from the elbow-joint. The median nerve lies close to the medial side of the artery, above, but is separated from it below by the ulnar head of the Pronator teres. The tendon of the Biceps brachii lies to the lateral side of the artery; the radial nerve is situated upon the Supinator, and concealed by the Brachioradialis.
Peculiarities of the Brachial Artery as Regards its Course.—The brachial artery, accompanied by the median nerve, may leave the medial border of the Biceps brachii, and descend toward the medial epicondyle of the humerus; in such cases it usually passes behind the supracondylar process of the humerus, from which a fibrous arch is in most cases thrown over the artery; it then runs beneath or through the substance of the Pronator teres, to the bend of the elbow. This variation bears considerable analogy with the normal condition of the artery in some of the carnivora; it has been referred to in the description of the humerus.
As Regards its Division.—Occasionally, the artery is divided for a short distance at its upper part into two trunks, which are united below. Frequently the artery divides at a higher level than usual, and the vessels concerned in this high division are three, viz., radial, ulnar, and interosseous. Most frequently the radial is given off high up, the other limb of the bifurcation consisting of the ulnar and interosseous; in some instances the ulnar arises above the ordinary level, and the radial and interosseous form the other limb of the division; occasionally the interosseous arises high up.
Sometimes, long slender vessels, vasa aberrantia, connect the brachial or the axillary artery with one of the arteries of the forearm, or branches from them. These vessels usually join the radial.
Varieties in Muscular Relations.—The brachial artery is occasionally concealed, in some part of its course, by muscular or tendinous slips derived from the Coracobrachialis, Biceps brachii, Brachialis, or Pronator teres.
Collateral Circulation.—After the application of a ligature to the brachial artery in the upper third of the arm, the circulation is carried on by branches from the humeral circumflex and subscapular arteries anastomosing with ascending branches from the profunda brachii. If the artery be tied below the origin of the profunda brachii and superior ulnar collateral, the circulation is maintained by the branches of these two arteries anastomosing with the inferior ulnar collateral, the radial and ulnar recurrents, and the dorsal interosseous.
Branches.—The branches of the brachial artery are:
1. The arteria profunda brachii (superior profunda artery) is a large vessel which arises from the medial and back part of the brachial, just below the lower border of the Teres major. It follows closely the radial nerve, running at first backward between the medial and lateral heads of the Triceps brachii, then along the groove for the radial nerve, where it is covered by the lateral head of the Triceps brachii, to the lateral side of the arm; there it pierces the lateral intermuscular septum, and, descending between the Brachioradialis and the Brachialis to the front of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, ends by anastomosing with the radial recurrent artery. It gives branches to the Deltoideus and to the muscles between which it lies; it supplies an occasional nutrient artery which enters the humerus behind the deltoid tuberosity. A branch ascends between the long and lateral heads of the Triceps brachii to anastomose with the posterior humeral circumflex artery; a middle collateral branch descends in the middle head of the Triceps brachii and assists in forming the anastomosis above the olecranon; and, lastly, a radial collateral branch runs down behind the lateral intermuscular septum to the back of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, where it anastomoses with the interosseous recurrent and the inferior ulnar collateral arteries.
2. The nutrient artery (a. nutricia humeri) of the body of the humerus arises about the middle of the arm and enters the nutrient canal near the insertion of the Coracobrachialis.
Diagram of the anastomosis around the elbow-joint.
3. The superior ulnar collateral artery (a. collateralis ulnaris superior; inferior profunda artery), of small size, arises from the brachial a little below the middle of the arm; it frequently springs from the upper part of the a. profunda brachii. It pierces the medial intermuscular septum, and descends on the surface of the medial head of the Triceps brachii to the space between the medial epicondyle and olecranon, accompanied by the ulnar nerve, and ends under the Flexor carpi ulnaris by anastomosing with the posterior ulnar recurrent, and inferior ulnar collateral. It sometimes sends a branch in front of the medial epicondyle, to anastomose with the anterior ulnar recurrent.
4. The inferior ulnar collateral artery (a. collateralis ulnaris inferior; anastomotica magna artery) arises about 5 cm. above the elbow. It passes medialward upon the Brachialis, and piercing the medial intermuscular septum, winds around the back of the humerus between the Triceps brachii and the bone, forming, by its junction with the profunda brachii, an arch above the olecranon fossa. As the vessel lies on the Brachialis, it gives off branches which ascend to join the superior ulnar collateral: others descend in front of the medial epicondyle, to
anastomose with the anterior ulnar recurrent. Behind the medial epicondyle a branch anastomoses with the superior ulnar collateral and posterior ulnar recurrent arteries.
5. The muscular branches (rami musculares) three or four in number, are distributed to the Coracobrachialis, Biceps brachii, and Brachialis.
The Anastomosis Around the Elbow-joint. The vessels engaged in this anastomosis may be conveniently divided into those situated in front of and those behind the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus. The branches anastomosing in front of the medial epicondyle are: the anterior branch of the inferior ulnar collateral, the anterior ulnar recurrent, and the anterior branch of the superior ulnar collateral. Those behind the medial epicondyle are: the inferior ulnar collateral, the posterior ulnar recurrent, and the posterior branch of the superior ulnar collateral. The branches anastomosing in front of the lateral epicondyle are: the radial recurrent and the terminal part of the profunda brachii. Those behind the lateral epicondyle (perhaps more properly described as being situated between the lateral epicondyle and the olecranon) are: the inferior ulnar collateral, the interosseous recurrent, and the radial collateral branch of the profunda brachii. There is also an arch of anastomosis above the olecranon, formed by the interosseous recurrent joining with the inferior ulnar collateral and posterior ulnar recurrent
The radial artery appears, from its direction, to be the continuation of the brachial, but it is smaller in caliber than the ulnar. It commences at the bifurcation of the brachial, just below the bend of the elbow, and passes along the radial side of the forearm to the wrist. It then winds backward, around the lateral side of the carpus, beneath the tendons of the Abductor pollicis longus and Extensores pollicis longus and brevis to the upper end of the space between the metacarpal bones of the thumb and index finger. Finally it passes forward between the two heads of the first Interosseous dorsalis, into the palm of the hand, where it crosses the metacarpal bones and at the ulnar side of the hand unites with the deep volar branch of the ulnar artery to form the deep volar arch. The radial artery therefore consists of three portions, one in the forearm, a second at the back of the wrist, and a third in the hand.
Relations.—(a) In the forearm the artery extends from the neck of the radius to the forepart of the styloid process, being placed to the medial side of the body of the bone above, and in front of it below. Its upper part is overlapped by the fleshy belly of the Brachioradialis; the rest of the artery is superficial, being covered by the integument and the superficial and deep fasciæ. In its course downward, it lies upon the tendon of the Biceps brachii, the Supinator, the Pronator teres, the radial origin of the Flexor digitorum sublimis, the Flexor pollicis longus, the Pronator quadratus, and the lower end of the radius. In the upper third of its course it lies between the Brachioradialis and the Pronator teres; in the lower two-thirds, between the tendons of the Brachioradialis and Flexor carpi radialis. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is close to the lateral side of the artery in the middle third of its course; and some filaments of the lateral antibrachial cutaneous nerve run along the lower part of the artery as it winds around the wrist. The vessel is accompanied by a pair of venæ comitantes throughout its whole course.
The radial and ulnar arteries.
Ulnar and radial arteries. Deep view.
(b) At the wrist the artery reaches the back of the carpus by passing between the radial collateral ligament of the wrist and the tendons of the Abductor pollicis longus and Extensor pollicis brevis. It then descends on the navicular and greater multangular bones, and before disappearing between the heads of the first Interosseus dorsalis is crossed by the tendon of the Extensor pollicis longus. In the interval between the two Extensores pollicis it is crossed by the digital rami of the superficial branch of the radial nerve which go to the thumb and index finger.
(c) In the hand, it passes from the upper end of the first interosseous space, between the heads of the first Interosseus dorsalis, transversely across the palm between the Adductor pollicis obliquus and Adductor pollicis transversus, but sometimes piercing the latter muscle, to the base of the metacarpal bone of the little finger, where it anastomoses with the deep volar branch from the ulnar artery, completing the deep volar arch .
Peculiarities.—The origin of the radial artery is, in nearly one case in eight, higher than usual; more often it arises from the axillary or upper part of the brachial than from the lower part of the latter vessel. In the forearm it deviates less frequently from its normal position than the ulnar. It has been found lying on the deep fascia instead of beneath it. It has also been observed on the surface of the Brachioradialis, instead of under its medial border; and in turning around the wrist, it has been seen lying on, instead of beneath, the Extensor tendons of the thumb.
Branches.—The branches of the radial artery may be divided into three groups, corresponding with the three regions in which the vessel is situated.
The radial recurrent artery (a. recurrens radialis) arises immediately below the elbow. It ascends between the branches of the radial nerve, lying on the Supinator and then between the Brachioradialis and Brachialis, supplying these muscles and the elbow-joint, and anastomosing with the terminal part of the profunda brachii.
The muscular branches (rami musculares) are distributed to the muscles on the radial side of the forearm.
The volar carpal branch (ramus carpeus volaris; anterior radial carpal artery) is a small vessel which arises near the lower border of the Pronator quadratus, and, running across the front of the carpus, anastomoses with the volar carpal branch of the ulnar artery. This anastomosis is joined by a branch from the volar interosseous above, and by recurrent branches from the deep volar arch below, thus forming a volar carpal net-work which supplies the articulations of the wrist and carpus.
The superficial volar branch (ramus volaris superficialis; superficialis volœ artery) arises from the radial artery, just where this vessel is about to wind around the lateral side of the wrist. Running forward, it passes through, occasionally over, the muscles of the ball of the thumb, which it supplies, and sometimes anastomoses with the terminal portion of the ulnar artery, completing the superficial volar arch. This vessel varies considerably in size: usually it is very small, and ends in the muscles of the thumb; sometimes it is as large as the continuation of the radial
The dorsal carpal branch (ramus carpeus dorsalis; posterior radial carpal artery) is a small vessel which arises beneath the Extensor tendons of the thumb; crossing the carpus transversely toward the medial border of the hand, it anastomoses with the dorsal carpal branch of the ulnar and with the volar and dorsal interosseous arteries to form a dorsal carpal network. From this network are given off three slender dorsal metacarpal arteries, which run downward on the second, third, and fourth Interossei dorsales and bifurcate into the dorsal digital branches for the supply of the adjacent sides of the middle, ring, and little fingers respectively, communicating with the proper volar digital branches of the superficial volar arch. Near their origins they anastomose with the deep volar arch by the superior perforating arteries, and near their points of bifurcation with the common volar digital vessels of the superficial volar arch by the inferior perforating arteries.
The first dorsal metacarpal arises just before the radial artery passes between the two heads of the first Interosseous dorsalis and divides almost immediately into two branches which supply the adjacent sides of the thumb and index finger; the radial side of the thumb receives a branch directly from the radial artery.
The arteria princeps pollicis arises from the radial just as it turns medialward to the deep part of the hand; it descends between the first Interosseous dorsalis and Adductor pollicis obliquus, along the ulnar side of the metacarpal bone of the thumb to the base of the first phalanx, where it lies beneath the tendon of the Flexor pollicis longus and divides into two branches. These make their appearance between the medial and lateral insertions of the Adductor pollicis obliquus, and run along the sides of the thumb, forming on the volar surface of the last phalanx an arch, from which branches are distributed to the integument and subcutaneous tissue of the thumb.
The arteria volaris indicis radialis (radialis indicis artery) arises close to the preceding, descends between the first Interosseus dorsalis and Adductor pollicis transversus, and runs along the radial side of the index finger to its extremity, where it anastomoses with the proper digital artery, supplying the ulnar side of the finger. At the lower border of the Adductor pollicis transversus this vessel anastomoses with the princeps pollicis, and gives a communicating branch to the superficial volar arch. The a. princeps pollicis and a. volaris indicis radialis may spring from a common trunk termed the first volar metacarpal artery.
The deep volar arch (arcus volaris profundus; deep palmar arch) is formed by the anastomosis of the terminal part of the radial artery with the deep volar branch of the ulnar. It lies upon the carpal extremities of the metacarpal bones and on the Interossei, being covered by the Adductor pollicis obliquus, the Flexor tendons of the fingers, and the Lumbricales. Alongside of it, but running in the opposite direction—that is to say, toward the radial side of the hand—is the deep branch of the ulnar nerve.
The volar metacarpal arteries (aa. metacarpeæ volares; palmar interosseous arteries), three or four in number, arise from the convexity of the deep volar arch; they run distally upon the Interossei, and anastomose at the clefts of the fingers with the common digital branches of the superficial volar arch.
The perforating branches (rami perforantes), three in number, pass backward from the deep volar arch, through the second, third, and fourth interosseous spaces and between the heads of the corresponding Interossei dorsalis, to anastomose with the dorsal metacarpal arteries.
The recurrent branches arise from the concavity of the deep volar arch. They ascend in front of the wrist, supply the intercarpal articulations, and end in the volar carpal network.
Theme 3. Superficial and deep veins, lymphatics of upper extremity
Subclavian vein continues from axillary vein, lies in same name sulcus of first rib and collects blood from thoracic veins and dorsal scapular vein.
Veins of upper limb are subdivided into superficial and deep. They are communicated by numerous anastomoses and have valves.
Superficial veins are developed richer than deep one.
Cephalic vein starts from radial part of dorsal venous hand net. From dorsal hand surface it passes on anterior surface of radial margin across forearm, lies into lateral biceps brachii sulcus, then into sulcus between deltoid and major pectoral muscles and empties under clavicle into axillarу vein.
Basilica vein collects blood from ulnar part of dorsal venous hand net, lies on ulnar side of anterior forearm surface, passes on medial biceps brachii sulcus and empties into one of brachial veins.
Intermediate cubiti vein passes obliquely in area of cubital fossa from cephalic to basilica veins.
The Deep veins of upper limb are double, they start from superficial palmar venous arch and deep palmar venous arch then accompanies same name arteries and.
Axillar vein is odd, it accompanies same name artery and continues into subclavian vein.
The veins of the upper extremity are divided into two sets, superficial and deep; the two sets anastomose frequently with each other. The superficial veins are placed immediately beneath the integument between the two layers of superficial fascia. The deep veins accompany the arteries, and constitute the venæ comitantes of those vessels. Both sets are provided with valves, which are more numerous in the deep than in the superficial veins.
The Superficial Veins of the Upper Extremity
The superficial veins of the upper extremity are the digital, metacarpal, cephalic, basilic, median.
Digital Veins.—The dorsal digital veins pass along the sides of the fingers and are joined to one another by oblique communicating branches. Those from the adjacent sides of the fingers unite to form three dorsal metacarpal veins (573), which end in a dorsal venous net-work opposite the middle of the metacarpus. The radial part of the net-work is joined by the dorsal digital vein from the radial side of the index finger and by the dorsal digital veins of the thumb, and is prolonged upward as the cephalic vein. The ulnar part of the net-work receives the dorsal digital vein of the ulnar side of the little finger and is continued upward as the basilic vein. A communicating branch frequently connects the dorsal venous network with the cephalic vein about the middle of the forearm.
The volar digital veins on each finger are connected to the dorsal digital veins by oblique intercapitular veins. They drain into a venous plexus which is situated over the thenar and hypothenar eminences and across the front of the wrist.
The veins on the dorsum of the hand.
The cephalic vein begins in the radial part of the dorsal venous net-work and winds upward around the radial border of the forearm, receiving tributaries from both surfaces. Below the front of the elbow it gives off the vena mediana cubiti (median basilic vein), which receives a communicating branch from the deep veins of the forearm and passes across to join the basilic vein. The cephalic vein then ascends in front of the elbow in the groove between the Brachioradialis and the Biceps brachii. It crosses superficial to the musculocutaneous nerve and ascends in the groove along the lateral border of the Biceps brachii. In the upper third of the arm it passes between the Pectoralis major and Deltoideus, where it is accompanied by the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial artery. It pierces the coracoclavicular fascia and, crossing the axillary artery, ends in the axillary vein just below the clavicle. Sometimes it communicates with the external jugular vein by a branch which ascends in front of the clavicle.
The accessory cephalic vein (v. cephalica accessoria) arises either from a small tributory plexus on the back of the forearm or from the ulnar side of the dorsal venous net-work; it joins the cephalic below the elbow. In some cases the accessory cephalic springs from the cephalic above the wrist and joins it again higher up. A large oblique branch frequently connects the basilic and cephalic veins on the back of the forearm.
The basilic vein (v. basilica) begins in the ulnar part of the dorsal venous network. It runs up the posterior surface of the ulnar side of the forearm and inclines forward to the anterior surface below the elbow, where it is joined by the vena mediana cubiti. It ascends obliquely in the groove between the Biceps brachii and Pronator teres and crosses the brachial artery, from which it is separated by the lacertus fibrosus; filaments of the medial antibrachial cutaneous nerve pass both in front of and behind this portion of the vein. It then runs upward along the medial border of the Biceps brachii, perforates the deep fascia a little below the middle of the arm, and, ascending on the medial side of the brachial artery to the lower border of the Teres major, is continued onward as the axillary vein.
The superficial veins of the upper extremity.
The median antibrachial vein (v. mediana antibrachii) drains the venous plexus on the volar surface of the hand. It ascends on the ulnar side of the front of the forearm and ends in the basilic vein or in the vena mediana cubiti; in a small proportion of cases it divides into two branches, one of which joins the basilic, the other the cephalic, below the elbow.
The Deep Veins of the Upper Extremity
The deep veins follow the course of the arteries, forming their venæ comitantes. They are generally arranged in pairs, and are situated one on either side of the corresponding artery, and connected at intervals by short transverse branches.
Deep Veins of the Hand.—The superficial and deep volar arterial arches are each accompanied by a pair of venæ comitantes which constitute respectively the superficial and deep volar venous arches, and receive the veins corresponding to the branches of the arterial arches; thus the common volar digital veins, formed by the union of the proper volar digital veins, open into the superficial, and the volar metacarpal veins into the deep volar venous arches. The dorsal metacarpal veins receive perforating branches from the volar metacarpal veins and end in the radial veins and in the superficial veins on the dorsum of the wrist.
The deep veins of the forearm are the venæ comitantes of the radial and ulnar veins and constitute respectively the upward continuations of the deep and superficial volar venous arches; they unite in front of the elbow to form the brachial veins. The radial veins are smaller than the ulnar and receive the dorsal metacarpal veins. The ulnar veins receive tributaries from the deep volar venous arches and communicate with the superficial veins at the wrist; near the elbow they receive the volar and dorsal interosseous veins and send a large communicating branch (profunda vein) to the vena mediana cubiti.
The deep veins of the upper extremity.
The brachial veins (vv. brachiales) are placed one on either side of the brachial artery, receiving tributaries corresponding with the branches given off from that vessel; near the lower margin of the Subscapularis, they join the axillary vein; the medial one frequently joins the basilic vein.
These deep veins have numerous anastomoses, not only with each other, but also with the superficial veins.
The axillary vein (v. axillaris) begins at the lower border of the Teres major, as the continuation of the basilic vein, increases in size as it ascends, and ends at the outer border of the first rib as the subclavian vein. Near the lower border of the Subscapularis it receives the brachial veins and, close to its termination, the cephalic vein; its other tributaries correspond with the branches of the axillary artery. It lies on the medial side of the artery, which it partly overlaps; between the two vessels are the medial cord of the brachial plexus, the median, the ulnar, and the medial anterior thoracic nerves. It is provided with a pair of valves opposite the lower border of the Subscapularis; valves are also found at the ends of the cephalic and subscapular veins.
The subclavian vein (v. subclavia), the continuation of the axillary, extends from the outer border of the first rib to the sternal end of the clavicle, where it unites with the internal jugular to form the innominate vein. It is in relation, in front, with the clavicle and Subclavius; behind and above, with the subclavian artery, from which it is separated medially by the Scalenus anterior and the phrenic nerve. Below, it rests in a depression on the first rib and upon the pleura. It is usually provided with a pair of valves, which are situated about 2.5 cm. from its termination.
The veins of the right axilla, viewed from in front.
The subclavian vein occasionally rises in the neck to a level with the third part of the subclavian artery, and occasionally passes with this vessel behind the Scalenus anterior.
Tributaries.—This vein receives the external jugular vein, sometimes the anterior jugular vein, and occasionally a small branch, which ascends in front of the clavicle, from the cephalic. At its angle of junction with the internal jugular, the left subclavian vein receives the thoracic duct, and the right subclavian vein the right lymphatic duct.
Lymphatic nodes of upper limb may be divided into two sets, superficial and deep.
The superficial vessels and nodes of upper limb pass along the course of vena basilica and vena cephalica and compose lateral, medial and middle groups. Lateral group of superficial vessels carries lymph from skin of I-ІІІ fingers, lateral forearm surface and arm to axillar lymphatic nodes. Medial group of superficial vessels carries lymph from IV-V fingers, hand, medial forearm side and brachium to cubital and axillar lymphatic nodes. Middle group carries lymph from palmar forearm surface to cubital fossa and here part of vessels joins to lateral grand, and part to medial group. The superficial lymphatic nodes accompany the superficial hand veins. They collect lymph from skin and subcutaneous tissue. From them lymph passes to cubital nodes and axillar nodes.
Deep vessels and nodes of upper limb accompany the deep big vessels and carry lymph into deep nodes and superficial nodes, and from here - into cubital nodes and axillar lymphatic nodes. Axillar nodes receive the vessels from upper limb, thoracic wall, and mammary gland. The efferent vessels from axillar nodes form a subclavian trunk (left and right).
The Lymph Nodes of the Upper Extremity —The lymph nodes of the upper extremity are divided into two sets, superficial and deep.
The superficial lymph nodes are few and of small size. One or two supratrochlear nodes are placed above the medial epicondyle of the humerus, medial to the basilic vein. Their afferents drain the middle, ring, and little fingers, the medial portion of the hand, and the superficial area over the ulnar side of the forearm; these vessels are, however, in free communication with the other lymphatic vessels of the forearm. Their efferents accompany the basilic vein and join the deeper vessels. One or two deltoideopectoral nodes are found beside the cephalic vein, between the Pectoralis major and Deltoideus, immediately below the clavicle. They are situated in the course of the external collecting trunks of the arm.
Lymphatics of the mamma, and the axillary nodes
The deep lymph nodes are chiefly grouped in the axilla, although a few may be found in the forearm, in the course of the radial, ulnar, and interosseous vessels, and in the arm along the medial side of the brachial artery.
The Axillary Nodes (lymphonodeulæ axillares) are of large size, vary from twenty to thirty in number, and may be arranged in the following groups:
1. A lateral group of from four to six nodes lies in relation to the medial and posterior aspects of the axillary vein; the afferents of these nodes drain the whole arm with the exception of that portion whose vessels accompany the cephalic vein. The efferent vessels pass partly to the central and subclavicular groups of axillary nodes and partly to the inferior deep cervical nodes.
2. An anterior or pectoral group consists of four or five nodes along the lower border of the Pectoralis minor, in relation with the lateral thoracic artery. Their afferents drain the skin and muscles of the anterior and lateral thoracic walls, and the central and lateral parts of the namma; their efferents pass partly to the central and partly to the subclavicular groups of axillary nodes.
3. A posterior or subscapular group of six or seven nodes is placed along the lower margin of the posterior wall of the axilla in the course of the subscapular artery. The afferents of this group drain the skin and muscles of the lower part of the back of the neck and of the posterior thoracic wall; their efferents pass to the central group of axillary nodes.
4. A central or intermediate group of three or four large nodes is imbedded in the adipose tissue near the base of the axilla. Its afferents are the efferent vessels of all the preceding groups of axillary nodes; its efferents pass to the subclavicular group.
5. A medial or subclavicular group of six to twelve nodes is situated partly posterior to the upper portion of the Pectoralis minor and partly above the upper border of this muscle. Its only direct territorial afferents are those which accompany the cephalic vein and one which drains the upper peripheral part of the mamma, but it receives the efferents of all the other axillary nodes. The efferent vessels of the subclavicular group unite to form the subclavian trunk, which opens either directly into the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins or into the jugular lymphatic trunk; on the left side it may end in the thoracic duct. A few efferents from the subclavicular nodes usually pass to the inferior deep cervical nodes.
The Lymphatic Vessels of the Upper Extremity—The lymphatic vessels of the upper extremity are divided into two sets, superficial and deep.
Lymphatic vessels of the dorsal surface of the hand.
The superficial lymphatic vessels commence in the lymphatic plexus which everywhere pervades the skin; the meshes of the plexus are much finer in the palm and on the flexor aspect of the digits than elsewhere. The digital plexuses are drained by a pair of vessels which run on the sides of each digit, and incline backward to reach the dorsum of the hand. From the dense plexus of the palm, vessels pass in different directions, viz., upward toward the wrist, downward to join the digital vessels, medialward to join the vessels on the ulnar border of the hand, and lateralward to those on the thumb. Several vessels from the central part of the plexus unite to form a trunk, which passes around the metacarpal bone of the index finger to join the vessels on the back of that digit and on the back of the thumb. Running upward in front of and behind the wrist, the lymphatic vessels are collected into radial, median, and ulnar groups, which accompany respectively the cephalic, median, and basilic veins in the forearm. A few of the ulnar lymphatics end in the supratrochlear nodes, but the majority pass directly to the lateral group of axillary nodes. Some of the radial vessels are collected into a trunk which ascends with the cephalic vein to the deltoideopectoral nodes; the efferents from this group pass either to the subclavicular axillary nodes or to the inferior cervical nodes.
Lymph nodes of popliteal fossa.
The deep lymphatic vessels accompany the deep bloodvessels. In the forearm, they consist of four sets, corresponding with the radial, ulnar, volar, and dorsal interosseous arteries; they communicate at intervals with the superficial lymphatics, and some of them end in the nodes which are occasionally found beside the arteries. In their course upward, a few end in the nodes which lie upon the brachial artery; but most of them pass to the lateral group of axillary nodes.